coal mining

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coal mining,

physical extraction of coal resources to yield coal; also, the business of exploring for, developing, mining, and transporting coal in any form. Strip mining is the process in which the overburden (earth and rock material overlying the coal) is removed to expose a coal seam or coal bed. Excavators either dispose of the overburden or store the waste material for replacement after the coal has been extracted. Once exposed, the coal is usually removed in a separate operation. Surface soil is often stripped separately and spread back onto the reclaimed surface. The environment can also be protected by seeding or planting grass or trees on the fertilized restored surface of a strip mine. The term strip mining is most often used in reference to coal mining, although the process may also be used to extract certain metallic ores as well. Sometimes the terms open-pit, open-cast, or surface mining are used in the same sense, although they usually refer to metalliferous mining or the mining of other minerals. Underground coal mining is the extraction of coal from below the surface of the earth. The coal is worked through tunnels, passages, and openings that are connected to the surface for the purpose of the removal of the coal. Mechanical equipment breaks the coal to a size suitable for haulage. Alternatively, the coal is drilled, and the resultant holes are loaded with explosives and blasted in order to break the coal to the desired size. In order to protect the miners and equipment in an underground coal mine, much attention is paid to maintaining and supporting a safe roof or overhead ceiling for the extraction openings. Long-wall mining is a method of underground mining believed to have been developed in Shropshire, England, near the end of the 17th cent. A long face, or working section, of coal, some 600 ft (180 m) in length, is operated at one time. The miners and machinery at the working face are usually protected by hydraulic jacks or mechanical props which are advanced as the coal is extracted. The excavated, or gob, area is either allowed to cave in, or is filled in by waste material called stowing. The Anderton shearer is a widely used coal cutter and loader for long-wall mining. It shears coal from the face as it moves in one direction and loads coal onto an armored conveyor as it travels back in the opposite direction. It is ordinarily used for coal seams greater than 3.5 ft (9.1 cm) in thickness.

coal mining

[′kōl ‚mīn·iŋ]
(mining engineering)
The technical and mechanical job of removing coal from the earth and preparing it for market.
References in periodicals archive ?
Joe Manchin (D., W.Va.) had set up a blockade against the measure to bring renewed attention to the troubles of retired coal miners and their widows, whose health plans were due to lapse at the end of the year.
Following the sentencing, Blankenship stated that the 29 victims of UBB were "great guys, great coal miners" and again proclaimed his innocence.
Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 coal miners of Cherat, District Nowshera, KPK, Pakistan, from July 2012 to June2013.
As long as I can remember, I wanted to be a coal miner. When I was a little boy, my whole family were coal miners.
This book is described as the first published memoir by an Appalachian coal miner Armstead followed his father into mines in West Virginia in 1947 and worked at various sites until his retirement as a safety inspector in 1987.
He was the 11thof 15 children of a coal miner and his wife, Lithuanian immigrants.
With the grim Northern England coal miners' strike of 1984 as backdrop, a coal miner's son (Bell) stumbles into a ballet class en route to boxing lessons; his teacher (Walters) sees talent, and after extended coaching, encourages him to audition for The Royal Ballet School in London.
Thus, they argue, there is no inherent propensity to striking in the occupation of coal miner. The preconditions for workplace solidarity must exist before strikes can occur, which in practice means the actions of trade union organizers and pit managers determine worker behavior.
Marat Moore's new oral history collection, Women in the Mines, offers a fascinating window into the struggles of 24 women coal miners. Herself a former coal miner and journalist for the United Mine Workers' Journal, Moore conducted over 68 interviews in the 1980s and early 90s.
Residents monitor them in conversation - "You know," said Dennis Dickens of Peach Tree, a retired coal miner and avid ginsenger, "there was a red oak up this hollow here that fell down, I'd say about five years ago, was the largest red oak I ever saw.
No occupation has been portrayed more passionately in speeches, books, songs, and movies than that of the coal miner. Often charactized with poignancy and pathos, the harsh working conditions aroused public awareness, sentiment, and support for those employed in what has often been described as the deadliest of professions.
QUETTA -- A coal miner died in Balochistan's Mach district and another critically injured as part of mine collapsed from inside.Rescue teams rushed to the incident site and recovered dead and injured miners and shifted to the hospital.