The key uses field morphological properties (texture, pedality, colour, coarse fragment content) to map the spatially diverse materials that strongly affect plant growth and the success of mine pit rehabilitation (Tables 1 and 2).
Distinct zones of morphological properties (texture, pedality, colour, coarse fragment content) can be described using the key.
Coarse fragment content varied from 40 to 55 percent (by volume) and rooting depth extended up to 30 cm (12 in) (Lord, 1984).
Coarse fragments (diameter >2 mm) within the sample were screened out and weighed.
3]), coarse fragment
content (CF, %), and thickness (cm), representing the mass of carbon per area over a specified depth (t/ha of carbon) (Ellert et al.
Soil samples were analysed to determine particle-size distribution (hydrometer method), calcium-carbonate equivalent (HCI treatment or titrimetric method), organic matter content (Walkley-Black method), soil reaction (saturated paste), percentage of coarse fragments
(by volume), and bulk density (by cylinder method) (Soil Survey Staff 1996).
The presence of this community in more humid climates is due to the higher topographic position of the shell bars and low water retention of the soils with abundance of sand and coarse fragments
The coarse fragments
were measured and used to correct the bulk density.
(diameter > 2 mm ) within the sample were screened out and weighed.
The red material contained few coarse fragments
of quartz and feldspars and was very uniform in colour and texture (clay loam to light clay) irrespective of its position in the landscape.
Some of these coarse-textured soils have a significant amount of coarse fragments
, which usually increases with depth (USDA-SCS 1973; USDA-SCS 1988).
Soil measurements included: % coarse fragments
by weight and by volume, % organic matter, pH, CEC, and water content at 1.