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Related to coccidiomycosis: cryptococcosis, cryptococcus, histoplasmosis


(kŏksĭd'ēoi'dōmīkō`sĭs), systemic fungus disease (see fungal infectionfungal infection,
infection caused by a fungus (see Fungi), some affecting animals, others plants. Fungal Infections of Human and Animals

Many fungal infections, or mycoses, of humans and animals affect only the outer layers of skin, and although they are sometimes
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) endemic to arid regions of the Americas, contracted by inhaling dust containing spores of the fungus Coccidioides immitis. From the respiratory tract, it can spread to the skin, bones, and central nervous system. Manifestions of the disease range from complete absence of symptoms to systemic infection and death. In 60% of the cases no clinical evidence of the disease is present and the only recognizable sign is a positive skin test; in 15% symptoms resembling those of influenza occur; and in 25% more serious signs such as swelling of the knees, weakness, pleural pain, and prostration occur. Diagnosis is made upon positive cultural identification of the fungus. Treatment is with the antifungal amphotericin B and bed rest. The soil that supports Coccidioides spores is indigenous to dry, hot geographical areas; the SW United States, Argentina, and Paraguay are areas of high incidence of infection. Cases in the San Joaquin Valley in California, where the disease is called valley fever, increased tenfold between 1991 and 1995.


See M. J. Fiese, Coccidioidomycosis (1958); D. A. Stevens, ed., Coccidioidomycosis (1980).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



coccidioidosis, a disease of man and animals caused by the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides immitus and belonging to the mycosis group. It is prevalent in the countries of America (USA, Argentina, and Mexico), but rare in Europe and the USSR.

Soil is the natural reservoir of the fungus. A person becomes infected after inhaling dried exospores, which are highly volatile. The disease is not transmitted by a sick person or animal. Its clinical course may resemble that of influenza, rheumatism, or erythema nodosum, and it is accompanied by elevated body temperature, general malaise, and so forth. It strikes the lungs, skin (formation of deep infiltrates), central nervous system, and bones most often. Treatment calls for antibiotics, surgical removal of affected tissues, and supporting therapy.

Under natural conditions, cattle, sheep, dogs, kangaroos, squirrels, monkeys, rabbits, and other animals are also susceptible to coccidioidomycosis. The incidence is highest in a dry summer and fall, lowest in winter and spring. In cattle, it is chronic, benign, and asymptomatic. Dissection reveals the presence of a granulomatous process in the thoracic lymph nodes. In dogs, the disease is malignant and progressive and involves various organs and tissues. The diagnosis is based on laboratory tests. There are no radical methods of controlling coccidioidomycosis of animals. It is recommended that the animals in affected regions be examined and slaughtered if they react to the allergen. Diseased dogs are destroyed.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


An infectious fungus disease of humans and animals of either a pulmonary or a cutaneous nature; caused by Coccidioides immitis. Also known as San Joaquin Valley fever.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
An earthquake was the cause of the 1994 outbreak of coccidiomycosis in Northridge, Calif., where 203 cases of infection and 3 deaths were reported (JAMA 1997;277:904-8).
Coccidiomycosis, commonly known as Valley Fever, is an infectious disease caused by the arid soil-inhabiting fungus Coccidioides immitis.
Classification of nasal granulomas Infectious Mycobacterial: Tuberculosis (human, bovine, or avian); atypical tuberculo- sis; leprosy Bacterial: Rhinoscleroma Treponemal: Syphilis; yaws Fungal: Mucormycosis; aspergillosis; blastomycosis; histoplasmosis; coccidiomycosis; rhinosporidiosis Parasitic: Leishmaniasis Noninfectious Wegener's granulomatosis Sarcoidosis Inclusion granuloma (silicosis; berylliosis) Foreign-body retention Malignant Lethal midline granuloma Nonspecific
There was no history of foreign travel, exposure to sick contacts, or travel to areas endemic for histoplasmosis or coccidiomycosis. There was no exposure to birds, domestic pets, or farm animals.
These maladies include histoplasmosis, an infection that may occur in the lungs, liver, spleen and central nervous system, and is prevalent in the Ohio Valley, and coccidiomycosis, characterized by respiratory difficulties, fever and rarely, skin eruptions, which can be found in the San Joaquin Valley Another disorder, aspergillosis, has never been shown to have surfaced in homes, but does crop up in hospitals, affecting people whose immune systems are significantly compromised.
Active infection such as foot ulcers, tuberculosis, coccidiomycosis, hepatitis B or C, and pancreatitis.
Airborne transmission of fungi responsible for systemic mycotic infections such as blastomycosis, coccidiomycosis, and histoplasmosis has been demonstrated both in healthy and compromised hosts.