cod-liver oil

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cod-liver oil,

yellowish oil obtained from the liver of the codfish. The oil is rich in vitamin A and vitamin D (calciferol). It was long used as a preventive and cure for ricketsrickets
or rachitis
, bone disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin D or calcium. Essential in regulating calcium and phosphorus absorption by the body, vitamin D can be formed in the skin by ultraviolet rays contained in sunlight; it can also be consumed in such
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 in Baltic and Scandinavian countries, where fish is a dietary staple. However, it was not until the 1920s that doctors in the U.S. finally recognized its therapeutic usefulness. More palatable synthetic vitamins have largely replaced cod-liver oil as dietary supplements, and almost all the milk sold in the United States and Europe now contains added vitamins A and D. See vitaminvitamin,
group of organic substances that are required in the diet of humans and animals for normal growth, maintenance of life, and normal reproduction. Vitamins act as catalysts; very often either the vitamins themselves are coenzymes, or they form integral parts of coenzymes.
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.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cod-Liver Oil

 

a product obtained from the liver of fishes of the cod family (Gadidae). Cod-liver oil is a clear, thick liquid having a characteristic odor. It is pale yellow or yellow-brown in color. The oil consists mainly of triglycerides of unsaturated carboxylic acids; it also contains small amounts of free fatty acids, cholesterol, phosphatides, and vitamins A and D.

Cod-liver oil is used in medicine and animal husbandry as a source of vitamins A and D. One milliliter contains 200–500 IU (international units) of vitamin A and 80–100 IU of vitamin D. Cod-liver oil is used internally to prevent rickets and vitamin A deficiency. A similar oil, obtained from the subcutaneous fat of aquatic mammals (whales, porpoises, and seals), is used externally to treat skin disorders.

In animal husbandry, cod-liver oil is used to accelerate animal growth and development and to prevent and treat rickets and xerophthalmia. Although the oil is fed mainly to young animals, it may be used to treat fowl of all ages. The oil is stored in cool, dark places, because the vitamin D is converted to poisonous toxisterol when exposed to light.

Cod-liver oil obtained from wastes in the evisceration and processing of fish is used in leather and soap production.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

cod-liver oil

[′käd ‚liv·ər ‚ȯil]
(materials)
A yellow oil, high in vitamin D, extracted from the liver of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morrhua); soluble in alcohol. Also known as banks oil; oleum morrhuae.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cod-liver oil

an oil extracted from the livers of cod and related fish, rich in vitamins A and D and used to treat deficiency of these vitamins
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
On the basis of end use, the global cod liver oil market has been segmented as-
The report looks at factors such as the rising number of private label brands, health benefits of cod liver oil, and increasing demand for cod liver oil in the cosmetics industry.
Garden of Life Olde World cod liver oil, made in Iceland, is molecularly distilled and contains vitamins A (4,500 IU per teaspoon) and D (450 IU per teaspoon).
Last summer fans of fermented cod liver oil were rocked by the online report "Hook, Line, and Stinker" by nutritionist Kaayla Daniel, PhD, in which she claimed that Green Pasture's Fermented Cod Liver Oil is not a cod liver oil at all but rather rancid pollock oil (drkaayladaniel.com).
Actress Raveena Tandon, brand ambassador for SevenSeaS Original Pure Vitamin Rich Cod Liver Oil in the Indian market, spoke at the welcome event: "Children today are at a higher risk of getting drained both physically and mentally due to increased pressures to perform at schools, sports and other myriad activities in which they participate.
The researchers found that the users of cod liver oil were significantly less likely to have depressive symptoms than non-users after adjusting for multiple possible confounding factors.
* Cod liver oil. It is still a favorite among many parents.
Parents of 545 children with type I diabetes and 1,668 controls completed a questionnaire on the frequency of the use of cod liver oil and vitamin D supplements during pregnancy or in the first year of life.
In a country where the entire orthodox health establishment condemns saturated fat and cholesterol from animal sources, and where vending machines have become a fixture in our schools, who wants to hear about a peripatetic dentist who warned about the dangers of sugar and white flour, who thought kids should take cod liver oil, and who believed that butter was the number one health food?
At present such medicines are available exclusively in pharmacies, with grocery stores only allowed to sell vitamins and cod liver oil. The proposal covers the most common non-prescription medicines such as painkillers and nasal spray, according to the Norwegian broadcasting corporation NRK.
This only applies to oily fish such as mackerel, tuna and salmon - not cod liver oil tablets!
Cod liver oil is not a good choice because you could consume dangerous amounts of vitamin A.