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one of the forms of systematization of laws and other legislative instruments regulating some field of social relations. Codification is the most efficient and highest form of systematization: through codification the laws in force are separated from those that are no longer binding, and completely new norms in the given branch are created. As a rule, codification is concluded by the creation of a new consolidated (systematized) act built on uniform principles (most often in the form of a code).

Well-known historical examples of codification include the Justinian codification in Roman times, the French Civil Code of 1804, Russkaia Pravda (Russian Law), and the Russian Sudebnik (Law Code) of 1497.

In the USSR, the 1960’s and the early 1970’s saw the comprehensive codification of legislation in various fields of social relations. During these years the Basic Principles of the Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics were adopted in civil law and judicial proceedings, criminal law and judicial proceedings, and judicial administration; also adopted were basic codes in such areas as family law, labor legislation, land law, and water use legislation. In the Union republics new codes of laws were adopted (for example, codes of labor laws, codes on marriage and the family, and civil codes).

Of great importance is the codification of international law: the systematization of international legal rules in force allows for more precise definitions and for the correction and removal of all existing contradictions. A distinction is made between an official codification, which is conducted jointly by all or several states (including intergovernmental organizations), and an unofficial or scientific codification, conducted by international and national social organizations (the Institute of International Law, the International Law Association) or individual jurists. A general codification of all branches of international law has not yet been implemented. After World War II, intensive work was done on a partial codification of individual institutes of international law. In the 19th and 20th centuries the Hague Conventions were such a codification; these conventions concerned the laws and customs of war and the settlement of disputes by peaceful means. After World War II, important instruments adopted on the initiative of the USSR included the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and 1958 and the Vienna Conventions of 1961 and 1963 on Diplomatic and Consular Relations.

The codification of socialist international legal principles and norms has been implemented in such multilateral treaties and agreements as the Warsaw Pact of 1955; the Charter of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance; the Convention on Legal Capacity, Privileges, and Immunities of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance; and the General Conditions of Deliveries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance of 1968. Codifications have also been implemented in bilateral agreements between socialist countries in the fields of science, culture, and public health and social security.

References in periodicals archive ?
The conventional wisdom is that states codify customary law to clarify the law and promote compliance.
CDI is a serious disease that is a major healthcare challenge due to the high recurrence rates which are believed to be exacerbated by the broad spectrum antibiotics we use to treat CDI today," Professor Mark Wilcox, University of Leeds and Principal Investigator in CoDIFy commented.
The International Building Code embraces energy efficiency standards and now needs to codify sustainable principles.
The proposal to codify the economic substance doctrine adopts a much different approach to the tax shelter issue, which TEI opposes for the following reasons:
As part of its Better Regulation initiative, the commission intends to remove 1,000 pages of obsolete legislation from the Official Journal - a publication which was 97,000 pages long at the end of 2002 - and to codify a further 35,000 pages.
The amendments to the forms clarify the requirements regarding the age of financial statements; codify the long-standing practice of accepting two years audited income statement and statement of cash flows information, if the financial statements are presented in accordance with U.
Then they break these movements down and codify them using a computer language called LOGO.
have sponsored bills that codify the administration's proposed policy.
At the same time, the increasing use of machinery and technology accelerated the loss of control; court rulings helped codify the notion that management could exclude labor from key decisions; and the hostile policies of Presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover, along with fluctuations in the business cycle, weakened labor's bargaining position.
Mindanao lawmakers are pushing for the creation of the Code Commission of the Philippines which shall review and codify all existing laws of the country.
The proposed actions codify agreements committed to by the City Council and the Bloomberg administration at the adoption in January of the far reaching plan to spur development of 42 blocks of Manhattan's far west side and provide for the extension of the Number 7 subway to serve the area.