SOTA precision thin film chip resistors have resistance tolerances of [+ or -]0.1, [+ or -]0.25 and [+ or -]0.5% and/or temperature

coefficient of resistance of [+ or -]25 and [+ or -]50 ppm/[degrees]C.

where [[rho].sub.e] is the initial resistivity of the sensor at room temperature measured in [OMEGA] x m, L is the length of the conductor in m, Ac is its cross-sectional area in [m.sup.2], a is the temperature

coefficient of resistance for the layer measured in 1/K, and [DELTA]T is the change in temperature of the layer from room temperature.

It is both a function of its base resistance and its temperature

coefficient of resistance. A sensor with higher stability is not necessarily more accurate, but the larger signal it produces will tend to be less susceptible to lead-wire effects and electrical noise, as it generally improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensor interface.

The Temperature

Coefficient of Resistance was determined experimentally, according to the following equation

* Thermal

coefficient of resistance may significantly reduce throughput performance and final process tolerances.

The voltage

coefficient of resistance (VCR) is a measure of non linearity of resistors and is defined as the sensitivity of resistance.

During selection of heater material, the resistivity, temperature

coefficient of resistance, melting point, density, heat capacity, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance were mainly considered, and their respective effect on the heater could be evaluated through temperature distribution.

where: [S.sub.i] express the

coefficient of resistance characteristics.

This material is well suited for precision resistors because of its very low temperature

coefficient of resistance near room temperature as well as its small offset relative to copper in the thermoelectric series.

Cupronickel has a low temperature

coefficient of resistance (TCR), so the heater resistance will change very little as the temperature goes up and down.