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piece of metal, usually a disk of gold, silver, nickel, bronze, copper, aluminum, or a combination of such metals, stamped by authority of a government as a guarantee of its real or exchange value and used as moneymoney,
term that refers to two concepts: the abstract unit of account in terms of which the value of goods, services, and obligations can be compared; and anything that is widely established as a means of payment.
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. Coinage was probably invented independently in Lydia or in the Aegean Islands and in China before 700 B.C. The earliest known example is an electrum coin (c.700 B.C.) of Lydia. The first U.S. mintmint,
place where legal coinage is manufactured. The name is derived from the temple of Juno Moneta, Rome, where silver coins were made as early as 269 B.C. Mints existed earlier elsewhere, as in Lydia and in Greece; from there coinage was introduced into Italy. The first U.S.
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 was established in 1792. Mottoes used on many U.S. coins are "E Pluribus UnumE Pluribus Unum
[Lat.,=one made out of many], motto on the Great Seal of the United States and on many U.S. coins. Although selected in 1776 by Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson for the Continental Congress, it was not officially adopted as a national motto
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" (1795) and "In God We Trust" (1864).

Early coins were die-struck by hand and showed many individual variations. Standardized coins date from the use of a mill and screw machine (invented c.1561). Coins are usually stamped from rolled metal blanks, then milled. The final product bears a design impressed upon it between the upper and lower dies of a coining press. Milled or lettered edges have been used since the 17th cent. to discourage the removal of slivers of metal, especially from gold or silver coins.

No gold coins have circulated in the United States since 1934, when the domestic gold standard was abandoned. Until 1965, silver was used in the minting of dimes and quarters, but by the 1980s silver had disappeared from American coinage altogether. The cost of minting a penny has led a number of nations, including Australia (1964), New Zealand (1989), and Canada (2013) to end the circulation of that coin. In the mid-1990s, the European UnionEuropean Union
(EU), name given since the ratification (Nov., 1993) of the Treaty of European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, to the European Community (EC), an economic and political confederation of European nations, and other organizations (with the same member nations)
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 developed a common currency for its members. The new currency, called the euro, was inaugurated in 1999; coins and notes went into circulation in 2002, replacing the currencies of most EU members (see European Monetary SystemEuropean Monetary System,
arrangement by which most nations of the European Union (EU) linked their currencies to prevent large fluctuations relative to one another. It was organized in 1979 to stabilize foreign exchange and counter inflation among members.
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). Canada introduced the first colored coin for circulation in 2004; it was a quarter featuring a poppy.

See also numismaticsnumismatics
, collection and study of coins, medals, and related objects as works of art and as sources of information. The coin and the medal preserve old forms of writing, portraits of eminent persons, and reproductions of lost works of art; they also assist in the study of
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

coin, quoin

1.The corner of a building.
2. The stones or bricks which form the corner.
3. A wedge.

quoin, coign, coin

stone quoins set in brickwork
In masonry, a hard stone or brick used, with similar ones, to reinforce an external corner or edge of a wall or the like; often distinguished decoratively from adjacent masonry; may be imitated in non-load-bearing materials. Occasionally imitated, for decorative purposes, by wood that has been finished to look like masonry.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
And if ever Chaloner was arrested, he quickly turned King's Evidence and shopped his assistants and fellow coiners. The anonymous biographer says that Chaloner brought more pupils to the gallows than all of his predecessors.
Coiner schools operate in more than two dozen districts across the country and Dr.
In their description of their experience teaching a Multicultural Women Writers course, Easton and Lutzenberger write that they worked hard with the main teacher, working-class studies pioneer Constance Coiner, to encourage dialogue that focused on class, yet their diverse students often resisted talking about class.
Annette Kolodny, professor of comparative cultural and literary studies at the University of Arizona, implemented some of the changes Coiner suggests when she was a dean at her institution.
But for now, that only consists of the fact that "The X-Files" creator Chris Carter, coiner of that phrase, landed a high-seven figure book deal with Bantam this past week.
One of those livestock growers is 60-year-old Eron Coiner, who has 400 cattle on a 1,000-acre spread of private land within Idaho's Salmon National Forest.
We still wouldn't know of it if Constance Coiner three decades after its blacklisting hadn't discovered it, identified and fallen in love with its hero, Stephanie Koviak, and prodded the author to support her in seeking a new publisher.
He'd become a culture-hero, a coiner of the shibboleths of hip.
In creating his collaborative company, Original Ventures, Plattner has joined with others, including Jaron Lanier, the blond, dredlocked master inventor and coiner of the term "virtual reality," to bring the learning aspects of the center to the edges of the envelope.
Two young choreographers, Beth Coiner and Eun Me Ahn, used tight space to their best advantage, creating some of the most striking work of the downtown fall season.
His scientific mentor was less Bagehot than that other coiner of immortal policy tags, Richard Rose, whose notion of inertia as the dominant explanandum of policy, propelled his theoretical scan.
Coiner and a number of other Idaho farmers have begun buying a PAM to use when irrigating beans and other erosion-fostering crops -- plans that don't develop a dense mat of soil-grabbing roots.