Dat  has proposed analytical equations for predicting residual stresses caused by severe cold bending
on the basis of the results obtained by Hill  and by Timoshenko and Goodier  that give the loading and unloading stresses during bending of a plate, respectively.
The minimum cold bending
radius for SDR 11 pipe is 25 pipe diameters.
In practice, it turns out that wall thinning during stabilizer bar cold bending
rarely influences the strength of the radial area in view of a simultaneous work hardening of the pipe material.
In most cases, the necessary low temperature flexibility is assured, if a low temperature requirement of -40[degrees]C can be passed in the cold bending
UV 3/16-20 can be installed by cold bending
, which Bayer says makes it a prime solution for tunnel vaults and window rows.
The new, easy-to-use RIDGID Manual Hydraulic Benders--available in 3/8-to-2-inch capacity (Model HB382) and 3/8-to 3-inch capacity (Model HB383)--are designed for precise cold bending
of standard gas pipe (DIN 2440), black steel schedule 40 (ASTM A53) pipe and stainless steel schedule 40 pipe.
* It is a workplace equipped by an automatic bending machine with medium frequency heating of the bent material; it is possible to use it for cold bending
The new machinery is probably the largest cold bending
, three roll section bender ever made.
Bendco's pipe bending capabilities include structural bending through 36-inch wide flange, cold bending
1/4-through 14-inch and inducing bending 1-through 36-inch pipe.