Dietary fat supplementation has been reported to alleviate cold stress
and increase animal productivity .
Among cereals rice is most affected cereal by cold stress
so by broadening the rice gene pool through introducing cold tolerance traits and its related genes in wild rice, its production can be enhanced (Xie et al., 2012).
When the index lying around zero (-0.5 to +0.5) PMV indicates comfort while the deviation from zero is referred to as thermal stress and varies on a seven-point scale between -3 (cold stress
) and +3 (heat stress).
The most-common types of cold stress
include hypothermia, frostbite, and trench foot.
In Algiers, from the winter season (December-February) till the first decade of March, 40% of the days with PET < 18[degrees]C (slight cold to extreme cold stress
classes) are recorded.
inhibits rice growth during all growth stages, ranging from vegetative to reproductive stages.
The inbred SC676 presents greater tolerance to low temperatures than the other genotypes, therefore being suitable for the generation of a cultivar with adequate agronomic performance in rice production regions prone to cold stress
in the South of Brazil.
This allows for communication of thermal conditions using simple descriptive words such as "extreme heat stress" or "moderate cold stress
" [see sidebar "UTCI and mean radiant temperature [T.sub.mrt]"].
Far fewer studies have investigated tolerance to natural stressors other than high temperature, but an experimental study of the coral Acropora yongei exposed to 26 [+ or -] 5 [degrees]C suggests that short-term exposure to cold stress
(<5 d) may be more detrimental to photosynthesis and growth rate compared to heat stress, though the reverse may be true under long-term stress (Roth et al., 2012).
Diverse plant species tolerate cold stress
to a varying degree, which depends on reprogramming gene expression to modify their physiology, metabolism, and growth (Chinnusamy et al., 2010).
Sudden and increasingly painful cold stress
causes massive discharge of the sympathetic nervous system and release of norepinephrine.
The metabolism and growth of cells can be affected by cold stress