One is when there is a combination of a fresh cold-air outbreak
and very strong heating.
The occasional formation of icicles in the coastal zones of the Mediterranean Sea occurs in relation to cold-air outbreaks from the polar region, such as the one presented in this paper in February 2018.
The winter air temperature may drop below zero during the cold-air outbreaks from the polar region.
They are like the cold-air outbreaks
that hit the U.S.
The Dakotas are affected by strong cold-air outbreaks
as early as August, while in Texas and Oklahoma they are normally not seen until mid-October.
have provided ample opportunities for credentialed experts to get buried in the avalanche of common credence and flashy headlines.
Both vortices can, in some circumstances, play a role in extreme weather events at the surface, such as cold-air outbreaks, but these events are not the consequence of either the existence or gross properties of these two vortices.
The latter Arctic connection involves the movement of an extremely cold air mass from the polar regions to the midlatitudes at the surface (cold-air outbreaks), and it has been shown that the probability of such events increases following periods when the stratospheric vortex is highly disturbed and weakened (Thompson et al.
Because of this, it remains unclear at present if and to what degree the size and/or strength of the hemispheric-scale tropospheric vortex is actually connected with cold-air outbreaks.
Extreme weather events such as cold-air outbreaks (CAOs) pose great threats to human life and the socioeconomic well-being of modern society.
The linkage of the occurrence probability of continental-scale cold-air outbreaks to the amount of air mass transported into the polar stratosphere suggests that it is feasible to predict them 1 month in advance.
Jan Chylik, University of East Anglia, "Stochastic Parametrisation of the Boundary Layer Fluxes in Cold-Air Outbreaks
" (coauthor: I.