Hemoptysis appears to be caused by large collateral circulations
that subject venous systems to unusually high pressures.
We thank the authors for their supportive comments on our article related to circulating CD34+KDR+ cells (1) in their letter entitled as 'Endothelial progenitor cell and adhesion molecules determine the quality of the coronary collateral circulation
Collateral flow was graded according to the Rentrop classification: 0=no filling of any collateral circulation
, 1=filling of side branches of the artery to be perfused by collateral circulation
, 2=partial filling of the epicardial artery by collateral circulation
, and 3=complete filling of the epicardial artery by collateral circulation
Most patients with this anomaly are asymptomatic, and it is identified only incidentally due to sufficient cerebral collateral circulation
, commonly through the bilateral PCOMAs.
congenital absence of internal carotid artery: case reports and review of collateral circulation
. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001; 22: 1953-1959.
Key words: Fragmented QRS, coronary collateral circulation
, chronic total occlusion, logistic regression analysis
Keywords: Collateral circulation
, natriuretic peptide, left ventricular function
According to their opinion the TCA develops and contributes to the collateral circulation
The primary routes of collateral circulation
are the Willisian channels (anterior communicating artery, posterior communicating artery, and the ophthalmic via the external carotid artery).
If torsion of the tumor is subacute, an inflammatory response may occur which causes the tumor to become adherent to the surrounding structures with new collateral circulation
. The tumor may then become completely detached from its original blood supply, thus resulting in a wandering dermoid cyst.
It is assumed that with increasing number of stenosed coronary arteries, a wider area of myocardial ischemia exists, with less likelihood of ischemic regions being supplied by collateral circulation
, and hence a greater propensity to non-homogeneity of ventricular electrical recovery among adjacent segments of the ventricular myocardium.
Treatment depends on collateral circulation
, but early intervention is advocated to avoid complications.