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the principle of ownership of the means of production, by the state or the people


  1. any politicoeconomic doctrine which advocates communal or state ownership, and communal or state control of the means of production and distribution, e.g. COMMUNISM OR SOCIALISM.
  2. any political system in which communal or state ownership and control of the means of production and distribution is the dominant mode of economic organization. Actual forms of organization under collectivism vary widely. Thus, in some contexts, collectivism may involve a large measure of collective self-management.



a feature of socialist and communist social relations and a principle of communist morality that reveals the essence of the relationship between an individual and the society as a whole, the personality and the collective. Collectivism is the opposite of individualism. Historically, as a moral principle it originates even under the conditions of bourgeois society, within the working-class milieu, in the united actions of proletarians against the power of capital. Only in socialist society, however, does collectivism become a universal principle of relations between people in all spheres of social life, a prime requirement of personal moral conduct.

The social basis of socialist collectivism is public ownership of the means of production, which eliminates the exploitation of one person by another. Collectivism presupposes relations between society and the individual such that the development of society as a whole creates favorable conditions for the all-around development of the individual, and the development of the individual is the precondition for the progress of all of society. The main requirements that follow from the principle of collectivism in relations between people are comradely mutual assistance, the conscious acceptance and performance of one’s duty to society, the disciplined combining of social interests with those of the individual, and respect for the collective and its interests. The principle of collectivism presupposes a high degree of personal responsibility on the individual’s part: each person must answer not only for his or her own behavior and life-style but also for the fate of the collective and ultimately for the fate of society.

The program of the CPSU has as one of its aims the strengthening of collectivist tendencies in all spheres of life. The moral code of the builders of communism includes the very important principle: “collectivism and comradely mutual assistance; all for one and one for all.”

“Joint planned labor by the members of society, their daily participation in the management of state and public affairs, and the development of communist relations of comradely cooperation and mutual support result in the transformation of people’s consciousness along the lines of collectivism, industriousness, and humanism” (Programma KPSS, 1972, p. 117).

References in periodicals archive ?
We have provided additional empirical evidence concerning the cross-region variation of FDI in a collectivist Chinese culture to the notion that culture affects individual experiences on a basic perceptual level.
It suggested that people, who emphasized hierarchical structure and wanted self-enhancement regardless of individualistic and collectivist cultures think about negative aspects of human nature and behaved according to these beliefs.
The salience of family in this study reflects a collectivist orientation typical of a Filipino culture that concurred with numerous findings [43].
Collectivist cultures also highlight the control and balance of one's emotions more so than individualistic cultures (Soto, Levenson, and Ebling, 2005), (Mitamura, Leu, Campos, Boccagno, and Tugade, 2014) and (Schoefer, 2010).
A Brazilian sample was selected because of its individualist-collectivist composition: Hofstede (2001) found Brazil to have a moderately collectivist culture, while House et al.
The collectivist demands that the services be provided their way--even if it violates the conscience of those who do the work.
We focused on the collectivist value orientation for two reasons: first, most psychological contract research has to date been conducted within an individualist context, which has assumed an individualistic balanced exchange relationship, and second, we expected that a collectivist value orientation would be more likely to generate norm-consistent behavior (Bond 1986; Bontempo and Rivero 1992; Markus and Kitayama 1991).
Although it is often the case that persons in these cultures are referred to as individualist or collectivists, Harry Triandis, Kwok Leung, Marcelo Villareal, and Felicia Clack introduced the terms "allocentric" and "ideocentric" to describe individual persons within collectivist and individualist cultures, respectively.
The results of the experiment show that collectivist (individualist) culture auditors revise their estimates by increasing budgeted audit hours more (less) when additional audit evidence is relatively unfavourable to initial information.
Many scholars agree that a society's culture especially individualist/collectivist orientations has had effect on the level of organizational trust " high in collectivist and low in individualist societies.
To put it differently, Russia had already been Westernized before 1917, and collectivist institutions that were introduced by the revolution had already been largely alien to previous long-term institutional development.
Pakistani youth showed independent voting preference that is not affected by their collectivist cultural pattern.