By applying equation 8, the system can derive the steady state conditions of the

collision probability of the node, [Q.sub.0,0] is finally determined by imposing the normalization condition, that simplifies as follows.

Understanding collisions with excited atoms is important, as the

collision probability is usually greater than for ground-state atoms.

Designed as a fast 8-layers residual network, it produces two outputs for each single input image: a steering angle to keep the drone navigating while avoiding obstacles, and a

collision probability to let the drone recognise dangerous situations and promptly react to them.

In this paper, to explore a practical underwater MAC scheme, the

collision probability of control packets on random access-based and reservation-based MAC protocols is first analyzed.

After grouping WZs with similar characteristics, we calculate the

collision probability for each cluster by counting the number of WZs where at least one collision occurred and dividing it by the total number of WZs within that cluster.

(5) The significance of the estimated coefficient of [YEAR.sub.t], after controlling for driver experience, suggests there may be other factors, such as improving transportation infrastructure and better enforcement of traffic rules, that contribute to the decrease in the

collision probability. According to the China Statistical Yearbook, there were substantial drops in the number of traffic collisions (from 176,093 to 158,210) and direct property losses (from 883 million RMB to 798 million RMB) from 2008 to 2009, indicating that such macro factors do exist.

Algorithms like NCWB which overcomes the above limitations have a drawback that it does not consider the factor of

collision probability in computing CW [8].

Patera [10-12] firstly introduced an optimal evasive strategy in consideration of

collision probability. Bombardelli [13] obtained an optimal maneuver method to numerically maximize the miss distance, which described the arc length separation between the maneuvering rear point and the predicted collision point.

Figure 5 shows the

collision probability, f for different theoretical passing times of vehicles in consideration of the group size.

Let [[tau].sub.1], [p.sub.1], [[tau].sub.2], [p.sub.2] be transmission probability and

collision probability for two kinds of node, respectively.

In this paper, we define Wi-Fi average saturation throughput R(T, [alpha], H) (in terms of bits/Wi-Fi slot time) and average service time D(T, [alpha], H) (in terms of Wi-Fi time slots) to be functions of T, [alpha], and H = {q, L, n}, where the set H = {q, L, n} represents n-clients Wi-Fi subsystem with LTE-U to Wi-Fi

collision probability (Wi-Fi transmission failure probability due to LTE-U transmission) q and Wi-Fi data payload length L (the length of MAC data payload, in terms of bytes).

The preamble

collision probability ([P.sub.C]), probability of successful report delivery ([P.sub.S]), average report delivery delay (D), and resource utilization (U) are assessed.