The company added the columbium
element of the surcharge will be based on the monthly mean value for Ferro Columbium
(Niobium) found on metalprices.com, using a base price of USD8.00/lb.
Interestingly, at the same time columbium
was considered the material for the X-20 DYNA-SOAR, but the amount required exceeded the world's annual production of the element.
Materials include tantalum, columbium
, vanadium, molybdenum, and zirconium.
Now metals in the series, such as tantalite, niobium and columbium
, are in great demand because of their super-conductivity, anti-corrosion, high melting point and chemical contribution to lightweight steel.
Between 1975 and 1978, copper and cobalt production had fallen by 25%, the production of tin and strategically important columbium
and tantalum ran below capacity, and the mining of manganese stopped altogether due to collapsing transport systems and lack of supplies, parts, and technicians.
% Imported Major Foreign Sources 1990 1986-1989 Arsenic 100 France, Sweden, Chile, Mexico Caesium (pollucite) 100 Canada Columbium
100 Brazil, Canada, Germany (Niobium) Thailand Graphite 100 Mexico, China, Brazil, Madagscar Manganese 100 Rep.
These declines dampened demand for bauxite and alumina used in aluminum production, and for ores of tantalum, zinc, columbium
, and other metals used in steel alloying.
Some of the most commonly used alloying elements are: manganese, chromium, tungsten, vanadium, molybdenum, cobalt, and niobium (columbium