The typical size of the columnar structure
of both coatings is about 300 nm.
Cracks and openings on the visual macroscopic length scale, and the columnar structure
perpendicular to the surface on the micrometer length scale, thus define release channels.
Under an imposed electric field, ER fluids suddenly change from the fluid-like to solid-like state, and exhibit a stress which is needed to break the chainlike or columnar structure
Microlayers of iron have columnar structure
, and thickness of grains is approximately equal to their thickness.
Naoi and co-workers studied the formation of columnar structure
of surfactant-doped polypyrrole by electropolymerization using sodium salts of dodecyl sulfate and dodecylbenzene sulfonate as the supporting electrolytes and a conducting indium-tin oxide as the working electrode (14).
On basis of the results obtained it was assumed that temperature, at which condensates with maximal volume share of open porosity are formed, is determined by two factors: melting point of the salt and temperature, at which condensate being formed has a columnar structure
(temperature of the substrate corresponds to the second structural zone [4, 5]).
The condensates have columnar structure
, size of crystallites of which depends upon a condensation temperature.
Microhardness increases together with increase of the share of columnar structure
and molybdenum content in the layers.
One such innovation includes the ability to make new data available as it is ingested so users can query it as it is mapped to columnar structures
In particular, fibrous aragonite prisms composed of thin, long calcium carbonate needles are formed, instead of the columnar structures
surrounded and connected by organic matrix alveoli, as in normal shells of A.
Fewer columnar structures
improve the weld metal's mechanical properties, making the metal more ductile--up to 400 percent--while increasing impact strength up to 75 percent for better crack resistance.
Mount Boucherie, a favourite landmark for tourists and locals because its toppled columnar structures
resemble Roman ruins, was given scant description in the earlier book.