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trust

trust, in law, arrangement whereby property legally owned by one person is administered for the benefit of another. Three parties are ordinarily needed for the relation to arise: the settlor, who bequeaths or deeds the property for another's benefit; the trustee, in whose hands the control of the property is vested and who receives a fee fixed by law; and the beneficiary, for whose use the proceeds of the property are to be applied. In some cases the settlor may be the trustee or beneficiary, but it is indispensable that the trustee (legal owner) and the beneficiary (equitable owner) be different persons. The trustee's duty is to make the capital or earnings available to the beneficiary in the manner prescribed by the settlor and to manage the property prudently and honestly. The beneficiary may bring suit if this duty is breached. In modern times banks and trust companies, with their special facilities for handling investments, are often named the trustees of substantial properties.

Business Applications of Trusts

The arrangement at which the Sherman Antitrust Act was directed was a business application of the trust form. The Standard Oil Company, for example, induced stockholders in various enterprises to assign their stock to a board of trustees and to receive dividend-bearing trust certificates in return. The board was thus able to manage simultaneously enterprises that many believed should have been in active competition. Soon most business combinations in restraint of trade came to be called trusts, whether in the legal form of a trust or otherwise.

A horizontal trust is a combination of corporations engaged in the same line of business. A vertical trust is an organization that controls all or part of a series of operations extending from the procuring of the raw materials to the retailing of the finished products. In Europe the term cartel is applied to a monopoly or trust, but the term is broader in that it may have international scope, and there, as in the United States, it may be either vertical or horizontal.

Business trusts have been opposed as monopolies, and laws have been enacted to prohibit or control them. They have been defended as reducing costs through large-scale operations and avoiding the expenses of competition. In the United States trusts grew rapidly from 1880, and by 1905 most of the important mergers in American industry had been formed. The Sherman Antitrust Act, passed by Congress in 1890, made illegal all “agreements in restraint of trade” and all “attempts to monopolize” industry; but the law was not vigorously enforced. The Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) was designed to stop various practices of “unfair” competition, and the Federal Trade Commission was given power to issue “cease and desist” orders when violations were found.

Bibliography

See A. A. Berle, Jr., and G. C. Means, The Modern Corporation and Private Property (1932, rev. ed. 1969); W. Berge, Cartels (1944); R. R. B. Powell, Cases and Materials on Trusts and Wills (1960); M. Handler, Cases and Materials on Trade Regulations (4th ed. 1967); A. Hunter, ed., Monopoly and Competition (1969).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Combination

 

(in Russian, kombinatsiia). (1) An interdependent union, connection, or arrangement of several objects or component parts (elements) of a single object.

(2) A set of procedures for carrying out a complex plan, such as a chess combination.

(3) A contrivance, trick, or subterfuge; a deliberate maneuver to achieve a mercenary or other improper goal (commercial combination; political combination).

(4) An item of women’s underclothing (a slip).


Combination

 

in mathematics. Combinations of n elements taken k at a time are sets that contain k of the n elements and that differ from each other in at least one element. The number of combinations of n elements, k at a time, is denoted by Combination, C (n, k), or Combination and is equal to n!/k!(n - k)! (seeCOMBINATORICS).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

combination

[‚käm·bə′nā·shən]
(mathematics)
A selection of one or more of the elements of a given set without regard to order.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

combination

1. 
a. the set of numbers that opens a combination lock
b. the mechanism of this type of lock
2. Brit a motorcycle with a sidecar attached
3. Maths
a. an arrangement of the numbers, terms, etc., of a set into specified groups without regard to order in the group
b. a group formed in this way. The number of combinations of n objects taken r at a time is n!/[(n -- r)!r!]. Symbol: nCr
4. the chemical reaction of two or more compounds, usually to form one other compound
5. Chess a tactical manoeuvre involving a sequence of moves and more than one piece
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

combination

(mathematics)
A set containing a certain number of objects selected from another set.

The number of combinations of r objects chosen from a set of n is

n C r = n! / ((n-r)! r!)

where "n C r" is normally with n and r as subscripts or as n above r in parentheses.

See also permutation.

combination

(reduction)
In the theory of combinators, a combination denotes an expression in which function application is the only operation.
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org)
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Going forward, Fujitsu aims to provide support for even larger scale combinatorial optimization problems of up to 1 million bits through technologies like the problem segmentation technology(1) developed by Fujitsu Laboratories, thereby contributing to new business applications in a wide variety of fields, such as drug discovery, chemistry, transportation, finance, and logistics.
Action of derivatives on a function can be seen as a transformation of combinatorial structures.
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Dravid, founding director of Northwestern's NUANCE Center, contributed his expertise and the advanced electron microscopes of NUANCE to spatially map the compositional trajectories of the combinatorial nanoparticles.
Combinatorial Hodge theory on triangulated Riemann surfaces.
The two key updating methods can be generalized to other kinds of combinatorial design based key management schemes.
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Chernomatz and Levin also show that the combinatorial auction rule generates lower revenues to the seller than does the separate auction, regardless of the level of synergies.
If fluent in Babbitt's earlier practices, one would expect the partitions to be symmetrical, and for each hexachord and trichord to share similar set classes and be combinatorial and complementary with one another.
We use three combinatorial models for this purpose.
Key words: combinatorial approach; diffusion couple/diffusion multiple techniques; evaluation; phase diagrams; thin film phase diagram techniques.
The weakest performances were recorded on unspecified-mixed combinatorial relations (M = 42%).

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