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(1) In ancient Rome the right assumed by Julius Caesar and subsequently by Augustus and his successors to recommend to the Senate their own candidates for the remaining republican offices.

(2) In Western Europe in the early medieval period, an agreement sealing the act of giving oneself over to the protection of another, “stronger” person, who became patron of the former (the commended). The institution of commendation, which established relations of personal dependency of the commended with respect to the patron, formalized various underlying relationships. One type of commendation was the act of a vassal acknowledging his subordination to the power of the seignior, which was followed by an oath of fidelity and the granting of a benefice or fief to the vassal. A commendation of this type formalized the relationship of vassalage within the ruling class then taking shape.

A second form of commendation was that of impoverished free individuals to a large landowner. In this arrangement, a “weak” person gave himself over to the protection of a “stronger,” richer person and accepted not only personal dependence but frequently also material dependence: in many cases, the commended person was entrusted with land belonging to the patron. Such commendation was the legal formalization of a peasant’s dependence on a feudal landowner.

References in periodicals archive ?
By taking over Commend, TKH will be able to enhance its sub-segment vision and security and support the profitability of the business segment building solutions, the company said.
With incorporation into Genetec Security Center, a unified security platform that seamlessly blends IP security surveillance systems within a single intuitive interface, the Commend intercom control systems will enable Genetec end-users to install useful VOIP and analog intercom and video connectivity within any facility.
TEI commends the Treasury Department for the issuance of the much improved regulations, particularly--
House to commend, give Filipino Olympian Diaz incentive
Again, we commend the government for the taking the first step in eliminating a tax on investment that hinders the creation of new jobs in Canada.
Drug Czar John Walters Commends Program's Innovative Approach to Drug Prevention
We commend the Commission and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) on a fair policy with technology-neutral rules that protect incumbent spectrum stakeholders and benefit all consumers," said Martin Rofheart, director of the Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Operation at Freescale.
Secretary of State Colin Powell commended IEW, saying, "Celebrated worldwide, IEW provides an opportunity to highlight the benefits of international education and exchange; to express appreciation for students and scholars who study and teach here; and to commend the millions of people who build and strengthen bridges of international understanding by organizing and participating in exchange programs.