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(1) In ancient Rome the right assumed by Julius Caesar and subsequently by Augustus and his successors to recommend to the Senate their own candidates for the remaining republican offices.

(2) In Western Europe in the early medieval period, an agreement sealing the act of giving oneself over to the protection of another, “stronger” person, who became patron of the former (the commended). The institution of commendation, which established relations of personal dependency of the commended with respect to the patron, formalized various underlying relationships. One type of commendation was the act of a vassal acknowledging his subordination to the power of the seignior, which was followed by an oath of fidelity and the granting of a benefice or fief to the vassal. A commendation of this type formalized the relationship of vassalage within the ruling class then taking shape.

A second form of commendation was that of impoverished free individuals to a large landowner. In this arrangement, a “weak” person gave himself over to the protection of a “stronger,” richer person and accepted not only personal dependence but frequently also material dependence: in many cases, the commended person was entrusted with land belonging to the patron. Such commendation was the legal formalization of a peasant’s dependence on a feudal landowner.

References in classic literature ?
Heaven is as inflexible as man, and the signature of the contract is fixed for this evening at nine o'clock.
I think it is kept a secret from grandpapa Noirtier, that the contract is to be signed this evening.
Morrel went also to the notary, who confirmed the news that the contract was to be signed that evening.
It is impossible," said Maximilian, "that the signing of a contract should occupy so long a time without unexpected interruptions.
Franz arrived to sign the contract just as my dear grandmother was dying.
He signed the new contract, inserting "The Smoke of Joy" in the blank space, and mailed it back to the publishers along with the twenty storiettes he had written in the days before he discovered the formula for the newspaper storiette.
A haze of doubt and uncertainty hangs in Scotland over the most important contract of civilized life.
This contract, executed in duplicate, was signed by Barbicane, president of the Gun Club, of the one part, and T.
But that puts a stop to their makin' money, an' that brickyard contract was fat.
20 November 2014 - Dutch telecom, building and industrial solutions specialist TKH Group NV (AMS:TWEKA) said it had struck an agreement to buy a 75% interest in Austrian technology peer Commend International GmbH (Austria).
M2 EQUITYBITES-November 20, 2014-TKH to buy 75% in Commend International
A A A "In our capacity as Supreme Commander and Chief of Staff of the Royal Armed Forces, we wish to commend the honourable efforts and noble actions that you have made to defend the territorial integrity of the country and its sacred values with determination and courage," the Sovereign said in the Order of the Day on the occasion of the 54th anniversary of the Royal Armed Forces.