There are three primary components of the barrier system including the essential commensal
bacteria and their metabolites (the GI metabolome).
influenzae were >100fold more abundant than reads aligned with other commensal
bacteria, reflecting the significant proliferation of H.
Interestingly, LTA from skin commensal
bacteria can also directly influence MC activation by promoting their antimicrobial activity against vaccinia virus by means of production of cathelicidin .
Human skin closely interacts with the exterior environment, and the commensal
microbiota at the skin play an important role in maintaining the function of skin barrier. An assemblage of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and arthropods, colonize the human skin and together form the skin microbiome. The skin microbiome plays an important role in maintaining human health through inhibition of invasion by pathogens, formation of biofilms, and production of antibacterial peptides.
Change in commensal
bacteria is key to the inflammatory processes and are also altered in the presence of inflammation. The neuroinflammation characteristic of migraine may also be subject to this association.
Previous studies on cytokine responses associated with AOM have focused on limited numbers of cytokines and have not examined any relationship with commensals
of the NP microbiome.
However, when some of the mice were intestinally colonized with segmented filamentous bacteria--common commensal
inhabitants of the mouse gut--they developed the disease upon being immunized with the central nervous system antigens.
Recent advances in the better understanding of how organisms behave and of microbiological techniques such as sonification of the biofilm around the implant and prolonged culture have produced numerous reports showing that in cases labelled aseptic loosening, organisms of low virulence such as Propionibacterium acnes (a skin commensal
) can be identified in up to 72% of cases.
abbreviata should be considered as a commensal
rather than a parasitic relationship.
The 14 commensal
isolates were placed in 11 serotypes, 5 PFGE types and 6 ribotypes.
Study Selection: A total of 49 original articles were selected in accordance with our main objective to illustrate the resistance mechanism(s) by which commensal
microbiota can contribute to host defense against local and systemic infections.
In spite of their pathogenic potential, enterococci are exemplary commensals
as evidenced by their presence as natural colonizers of the GI tract and by the fact that they have been used safely for decades as probiotics [13, 25].