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hydrocephalus (hīˌdrəsĕfˈələs), also known as water on the brain, developmental (congenital) or acquired condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of body fluids within the skull. The congenital form may be associated with other abnormalities. The acquired form may follow meningitis or another cerebral inflammation or tumor. The accumulation of fluid causes compression of the brain and enlargement of the skull, sometimes with separation of bone structures. Paralysis and death may result or, at the least, mental retardation. Many forms of therapy, including surgery, have been attempted, but usually without much success in extreme cases.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



edema of the brain, an excessive increase in the amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the cranial cavity.

The cause of hydrocephalus is either excessive production of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain or obstruction of its efflux from the ventricles of the brain, as a result of inflammatory processes, tumors, or other diseases leading to closing of the apertures through which the fluid escapes from the ventricles. Congenital hydrocephalus is caused by congenital syphilis and toxoplasmosis; acquired hydrocephalus originates (usually in early childhood) after meningitides, menin-goencephalitides, head traumas, intoxications, and other afflictions. The most common symptom of hydrocephalus in children is an enlarged skull. In places where the bones of the skull did not knit normally, rounded, pulsating protrusions may form. Frequently there is strabismus and nystagmus. Sometimes a reduction of vision and hearing, headaches, and nausea are observed. Intelligence is diminished. Treatment of hydrocephalus calls for the removal of the cause, sometimes by surgery. It can be prevented by the elimination of conditions injurious to the mother during pregnancy and the prevention of neuroinfections during childhood.


Arendt, A. A. Gidrotsefaliia i ee khirurgicheskoe lechenie. Moscow,1948.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


, hydrocephaly
accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain because its normal outlet has been blocked by congenital malformation or disease. In infancy it usually results in great enlargement of the head
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
His diagnosis was delayed and he was misdiagnosed as having a communicating hydrocephalus caused by tuberculous meningitis.
By studying the school-aged children with mild-to-moderate communicating hydrocephalus, our findings provide evidences that the gray matter of left temporal and frontal lobe and white matter of corpus callosum are the most vulnerable regions in mild-to-moderate hydrocephalus, which happens even before the behavior changes.
Caption: Figure 1: MRI showing an expansile, poorly demarcated mass in the pons with minimal heterogenous enhancement and severe communicating hydrocephalus.
Key words: communicating hydrocephalus, vitamin A, deficiency, avian, bird, cockatoo, Cacatua goffini
Figure--3 Distribution of cases according to communicating/non communicating hydrocephalus Communicating HC 28% Non-communicating (obs truction) 64% Dandy marker malformation (DWS) 28% Note: Table made from Pie chart Table 2: Distribution of cases according to etiology Distribution of cases No.
Another reported an extensive mediastinal mass and yet another reported a mediastinal enteric cyst with pancreatic tissue and was associated with a communicating hydrocephalus.78
Communicating hydrocephalus secondary to a cardiac tumour compressing the superior vena cava.
Findings include macrocrania, dilated perivascular spaces, cystic spaces in the white matter, communicating hydrocephalus, and delayed myelination.
Computed tomography (CT) revealed communicating hydrocephalus.
linked with the subarachnoid space.[2] Communicating hydrocephalus is
After examination& investigation, the patient was diagnosed to have communicating hydrocephalus for which Ventriculoperitoneal shunting was done.

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