Electric modulus is defined as the inverse quantity of complex permittivity
In order to measure the complex permittivity
and permeability of absorber material, the reflection coefficient and transmission coefficient of a sample of known thickness must be measured.
The microwave tomography is based on the reconstruction of the complex permittivity
Kissick, "Improved technique for determining complex permittivity
with the transmission/reflection method," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol.
Although the complex permittivity
[[epsilon].sup.*] is most commonly used to discuss the results, another representation was proposed for polymers with high ionic conductivity: the electric modulus .
A microfluidic sensor based on a coplanar waveguide transmission line, to characterize the broadband complex permittivity
, cell sorting, and quantification of biological media is proposed in .
Based on Maxwell-Wagner theory [30, 31], Asami  derived an equation for the complex relative permittivity ([[epsilon].sup.*]) of a 2-phase mixture where the ellipsoidal inclusions (with complex permittivity
of [[epsilon].sup.*.sub.g]) are oriented in the background medium (with complex permittivity
of [[epsilon].sup.*.sub.a]) with the angle [[phi].sub.k] between the k-axis and the electric field, as follows:
Caption: Figure 5: Calculated real and imaginary part of the complex permittivity
, permeability, and refractive-index of the composite MMs in the terahertz region between 8 and 56 THz.
The measurement of the complex permittivity
was performed using two resonant cavities (2.7 GHz and 5.0 GHz) .
Buep, "Dielectric properties of liquid systems: the ideal complex permittivity
in liquid mixtures," Turkish Journal of Physics, vol.
Merla, "A Comparative Analysis Between Customized and Commercial System for Complex Permittivity
Measurements on Liquid Samples at Microwave Frequencies," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurements, vol.