This loading scheme allows the study of the post-peak behavior of the composite columns
. Therefore, it is possible to study the elastic behavior, the axial load capacity, and the ductility of the columns under axial loading.
Xiong, "Ultra-high strength concrete filled composite columns
for multi-storey building construction," Advances in Structural Engineering, vol.
3.1 Effect Of Concrete Strength On The Composite Column
The typical failure mode of the composite column
was local failure mechanism as shown in Figure 3.
The estimation of composite column
resistance shows that, when dispersion of all design factors is [+ or -] 5%, the probability of column failure is 0.065%, for dispersion [+ or -] 10% - 6.8%.
A composite column
, which consists of a T-shaped steel, an outer FRP tube, and concrete infilled between them (Figure 3(a)), was analyzed with the mesh given in Figure 3(b) using the proposed approach.
Because in the composite column
, there are two difform materials to confine concrete, the effect of restraint is different from circular section to square section.
The cause of failure of the composite column
, in which axial force was applied to the whole surface of section, was due to concrete crushing in the upper supporting zone (Fig 4).
As for the yield strength of steel, however, the two codes set forth different upper limits: KBC2016  prescribes the design yield strength of structural steel used for calculating the strength of composite columns
not to exceed 650 MPa and ANSI/AISC 360-16  limits the maximum yield strength of structural steel and steel reinforcement to 525 MPa and 550 MPa, respectively.
It is supported by six composite columns
giving it a Roman flavour.
This living room is the grand finale: Brazilian cherry floors with maple inlay, half-walls with composite columns
and a majestic 14-ft.-tall fire-place mantel.
Among the topics are stability theory, box girders, composite columns
and structural systems, circular tubes and shells, members with elastic lateral restraints, stability under seismic loading, and analyzing stability using the finite element method.