Concrete-cored sand-gravel pile composite foundation (CCSG pile composite foundation), which is composed by prefabricated low-grade concrete-cored pile and sand-gravel shell, consisting of soil between piles, cushion, and the composite pile
, is a new type of multivariate composite foundation that has been put forward in the recent years.
Simplify cleanup by shredding onto a tarp, directly onto the composite pile
, or into a bag or container.
To date, this new type of composite pile
has attracted considerable attention owing to its low cost and high effectiveness and has been successfully applied to soft ground improvement [3-5].
Plans also call for a composite pile
design, which have a seventy-five-year life.
It covers general principles and practices; types, including driven displacement piles, driven and cast-in-place displacement piles, replacement piles, composite piles
, minipiles, pre-packed piles, and factors governing choice of type; piling equipment and methods; calculating the resistance of piles to compressive loads; pile groups under compressive loading; the design of piled foundations to resist uplift and lateral loading; the structural design of piles and pile groups; piling for marine structures; miscellaneous piling problems, such as for machinery foundations, underpinning, mining subsidence areas, frozen ground, bridges on land, over-water bridges, and seismic regions; the durability of piled foundations; and ground investigations, piling contracts, and pile testing.
Additive formation of composites relies on sequential layering of multiple composite piles
with each ply containing fibers.
One of the composite piles
is a fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) shell filled with concrete and reinforced with steel bars.