The compressibility of air
is 7.65 x [10.sup.-6] [m.sup.2]/N, in comparison with 4.5 x [10.sup.-11] [m.sup.2]/N for water (on the same order of magnitude as tissue and plasma). The compressibility for an encapsulated microbubble falls within this range, as De Jong predicts the compressibility of Albunex[TM] to be 5 x [10.sup.-7] [m.sup.2]/N.(10,11) This impedance mismatch results in a very high echogenicity, such that the echo from an individual contrast agent can be detected by a clinical ultrasound system.
Due to the compressibility of air
, there is a possibility of overshooting.
"We found that we could optimize the efficiency of the OWC by making use of the compressibility of air
- something that is not intuitively obvious.
The source terms, [S.sub.a], [S.sub.g], and [S.sub.m], appearing on the right-hand side of the modified continuity and front transport equations account for the compressibility of air
, gas, and melt, respectively, which are expressed as follows:
For the pneumatic cylinder position control system, the dry friction forces, the compressibility of air
, the pressure and the temperature are time variant uncertainties, affect the performance of position control.