fracture

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fracture,

breaking of a bone. A simple fracture is one in which there is no contact of the broken bone with the outer air, i.e., the overlying tissues are intact. In a comminuted fracture the bone is splintered. In greenstick fracture (common in children) one side of the bone is fractured and the other side bent. In multiple fracture there is more than one break. A compound fracture is one in which the broken bone is in contact with the air because there is a wound through the skin; the bone may project through the wound. The bones of older people are especially liable to fracture, although no age is exempt. Fractures are caused most often by injury, although certain pathological conditions may predispose a bone to fracture. Osteoporosis, the leaching of calcium from the bone, can cause spontaneous fractures, as can malnutrition and cancer. A person with a fracture should not be moved unless the broken bone has been splinted or otherwise immobilized (see first aidfirst aid,
immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.
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). Proper setting of bones and the application of a cast should be performed by a doctor. X rays aid in the repositioning of the bone as well as in determining the state of healing. Surgery that involves implanting metal pins or screws to join broken bones may be necessary; in certain cases traction devices are used to align bone fragments. Skull and jaw fractures require special treatment.

Fracture

 

(in medicine), a disruption of the anatomical integrity of bone as a result of injury.

Fractures are extremely rare during the intrauterine life of a fetus. Spontaneous fractures involve a history of bone disease, while traumatic fractures do not; the latter type can be either closed or open, depending on whether there is an external wound. Traumatic fractures are further classified as occurring with or without displacement of fragments and as being oblique, transverse, or comminuted. Fractures usually arise because of extreme mechanical stress at the moment of trauma. Chronic fractures, due to slight, prolonged stress, are less common. Half of all fractures occur in the upper extremities, one fourth in the lower extremities, and the total incidence is three to four times greater in men than in women.

The symptoms of fracture are severe local pain, deformation, abnormal mobility, and functional impairment of the extremity. X-ray diagnosis must be used to determine the site of the fracture, the type of displacement of the fragments, and the method of treatment. The destruction of bone and injury to the surrounding soft tissues cause internal bleeding in closed fractures and external bleeding in open ones. Traumatic shock may follow multiple or severe open fractures of large bones.

The integrity and mechanical function of a broken bone are restored as the bone first forms a central callus and then a definitive one. The time required for bones to heal is affected by the presence of other injuries and by the severity of injury to the soft tissues that surround the fracture; other factors are the extent of displacement of the fragments and the victim’s general physical condition.

First aid for fractures calls for immobilization of the fragments in the fracture zone using special splints or improvised materials. In open fractures and traumatic shock, prompt medical attention is required. Severe bleeding from the wound can be arrested with a tourniquet. The bone fragments should be juxtaposed as closely as possible and immobilized throughout the healing period; this is usually effected with a plaster cast or by skeletal traction. Complications of fractures include injury to large blood vessels and nerves, suppuration in the fracture zone, and failure of the fragments to unite; all of these conditions require special treatment.

With age, bones become increasingly fragile, and this explains the high incidence of fractures after slight injury in the elderly. Because of the greater flexibility of their bones, children often suffer subperiosteal fractures, often close to a joint. Fractures in children are mostly treated by juxtaposition of the fragments with application of a plaster cast; less commonly, skeletal traction is used, and surgery as a therapeutic recourse is very rare.

REFERENCES

Kaplan, A. V. Zakrytye povrezhdeniia kostei i sustavov, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1967.
Watson-Jones, R. Perelomy kostei i povrezhdeniia sustavov. Moscow, 1972. (Translated from English.)

V. F. POZHARISKII

fracture

[′frak·shər]
(geology)
A crack, joint, or fault in a rock due to mechanical failure by stress. Also known as rupture.
(medicine)
The breaking of bone, cartilage, or teeth.
(mineralogy)
A break in a mineral other than along a cleavage plane.
(science and technology)
The act, process, or state of being broken.
The surface appearance of a freshly broken material.
The break produced by fracturing.

fracture

1. Med
a. the breaking or cracking of a bone or the tearing of a cartilage
b. the resulting condition
2. Mineralogy
a. the characteristic appearance of the surface of a freshly broken mineral or rock
b. the way in which a mineral or rock naturally breaks
References in periodicals archive ?
The role of imaging in the evaluation of a suspected vertebral compression fracture is extremely important in terms of patient selection.
Cho, "Thyroid cancer initially presenting compression fracture without common thyroid symptoms," Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine, vol.
Radiographs revealed the impression of five new vertebral compression fractures from T4 to T8.
Invasion of the fatty bone marrow by primary malignant tumours, metastatic malignancies, benign and malignant compression fractures cause similar signal changes on routine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies.
Strom, "Balloon kyphoplasty compared to vertebroplasty and nonsurgical management in patients hospitalised with acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture: a UK cost-effectiveness analysis," Osteoporosis International, vol.
Two (11 Percent) patients with tension fractures developed compression fracture in the opposite hip at a later stage and were successfully managed conservatively.
This small group of patients with low back pain for whom prompt imaging is "absolutely indicated" is comprised of those with suspected vertebral infection, cauda equina syndrome, cancer, severe progressive neurologic deficits, or vertebral compression fracture. That's 5% or less of all patients with acute low back pain, she said.
Just five months after gaining approval in Europe to market two vertebral compression fracture (VCF) treatment products, the Winter Park, Fla.-based firm is preparing a commercialization strategy for its Acu-Cut Vertebral Augmentation System.
Dr Jones said: "The bird looked pretty good when he came in but he had a compression fracture. As well as smashing up the black stuff on his beak he had squashed the bone.
Orthos now plans to enter the rapidly-growing vertebral compression fracture market with an estimated 700,000 fractures per year in the US and 850,000 per year in Europe.
My spinal-cord-injury history started with a compression fracture in 1964.I recently had the privilege of having my annual comprehensive evaluation done at the new spinal-cord injury/disorder center in Minneapolis.