computer architecture


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computer architecture

[kəm′pyüd·ər ′är·kə‚tek·chər]
(computer science)
The art and science of assembling logical elements to form a computing device.

computer architecture

The design of a computer system. It sets the standard for all devices that connect to it and all the software that runs on it. It is based on the type of programs that will run (business, scientific) and the number of programs that run concurrently.

Space and Time
All components in a computer are based on space (how much) and time (how fast). One example is the amount of memory a computer can access and how fast it can access it. Another is the width of the channels (16-bit, 32-bit, etc.) between the CPU and memory and between the CPU and peripheral devices and how fast they transfer data.

CISC vs. RISC
The way a computer's instructions are designed is a fundamental architectural component. The trend toward large, complicated instruction sets was reversed with RISC computers, which use simpler instructions. The result is a leaner, faster computer, but requires that the compilers generate more code for complex functions that used to be handled in hardware. Both CISC and RISC architectures are widely used. See RISC.

Special Purposes
Computers designed for single purposes, such as vector processors and database machines, require special architectures. In addition, computers designed from the ground up for fault tolerance also require unique designs.
References in periodicals archive ?
Kim became the first Korean researcher to be selected as an IEEE Fellow (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) in the field of computer architecture by the world's largest professional association in the field.
The Fifth Edition of Computer Architecture focuses on this dramatic shift, exploring the ways in which software and technology in the "cloud" are accessed by cell phones, tablets, laptops, and other mobile computing devices.
In this paper several taxonomies of computer architectures are compared and their most fundamental approaches are identified.
The term "computer architecture" was first used by IBM to describe the programming interface to their System 360 series of computers, specifically the instructions, registers, and flags seen by the assembly programmer.
The databases, standardized data elements, workstations, and networks must be integrated into one shared computer architecture if the organization is to avoid squandering financial resources on software and systems that are incompatible, redundant, or otherwise useless.
Standardization of PC and small computer architecture has permitted the growth of companies that do not have significant manufacturing capabilities, but design, assemble, and market computers using standard modules produced by other firms.
DOS was designed to work effectively on what is now an aging computer architecture. It was made to fit the limited hardware of early PCs and consequently has limited functionality.
Farreaching improvements have been made in processing speed, memory capacity, computer architecture, database technology, high-level programming languages and interactive programming environments.
ENPNewswire-July 30, 2019--SVP Nam Sung Kim Inducted Into Hall of Fame of All Three Major International Computer Architecture Conferences
Computer Architecture: Fundamentals and Principles of Computer Design, 2nd Edition
Computer architecture has become so complex that putting multiple cores on a single chip became better than increasing the size and complexity of a single processor.

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