Concentrate

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concentrate

[′kän·sən‚trāt]
(chemistry)
To increase the amount of a dissolved substance by evaporation.
(mining engineering)
To separate ore or metal from its containing rock or earth.
The clean product recovered in froth flotation or other methods of mineral separation.

Concentrate

 

(in mining), a product of mineral dressing that is more suitable for use or further processing than the initial raw material. In most cases, direct use of the extracted rock or its metallurgical or chemical processing is economically unfeasible and sometimes even technically impossible. A concentrate may have a high content of a valuable component (such as a metal), a small quantity of impurities (for example, iron and titanium in glass sand), or the required size (graded anthracite).

The quality of concentrates is regulated by government standards or by technical specifications that determine the size and the content of valuable components, undesirable impurities, and moisture. For example, concentrate must contain Pb > 70 percent, SiO2 < 2 percent, Cu < 1.5 percent, Zn < 2.5 percent, and Fe < 8 percent for lead hearth smelting and Pb > 30 percent, Cu < 4 percent, and Zn < 12 percent for shaft smelting.

A distinction is made among preconcentrate (coarse or crude concentrate), which is subjected to further dressing; bulk concentrate, which contains several valuable components; and final concentrate. In most cases, concentrate is a raw material for metallurgical, chemical, and other production processes.

References in periodicals archive ?
It stated: 'The delivery side of the chamber's training activities will concentrate upon encouraging new and emerging businesses with individual support for those starting up in business for the first time.
What I would like is to have a spell when I could just concentrate upon my boxing.
Following the events of September 11th in the United States and the consequent effect on world economic markets, Viscount Lifford decided to reduce his business commitments to concentrate upon his duties as an executive director of Rathbone Bros.
The area Black wanted to concentrate upon with Walcott was finishing.
The Governor asked the cadets to concentrate upon their academic and non-academic pursuits in order to prove themselves as real role models for the generations to come.
Alex thinks the owner should drop his business's four-star pretensions and concentrate upon improving its reviews.
The reporting and stories concentrate upon the low price of beers and so on.
The 4-3 penalty shoot-out defeat at Atherstone on Tuesday night ended Boro's hopes of lifting a cup trophy this term with just the BGB Southern League Midlands Division to concentrate upon over the next six months.
Orchestral colourings are obviously lost, and these performers wisely do little to attempt to recreate them; instead they concentrate upon texture and clarity, and the results are gripping.
The resolution also said that such a proclamation should cause and encourage patriotic and civic associations, veterans and labor organizations, schools, universities and communities of study and worship, together with citizens everywhere, to develop programs and research projects that concentrate upon the life and character of George Washington as it relates to the future of the Nation and to the development and welfare of the lives of free people everywhere.
PTEA leaders demanded that Government should concentrate upon some truly visionary steps and address genuine concerns of the industry with innovation and extraordinary solutions in the upcoming textile policy.
But given this result he may now be able to place the matter behind him and concentrate upon his future.