Concentrate

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concentrate

[′kän·sən‚trāt]
(chemistry)
To increase the amount of a dissolved substance by evaporation.
(mining engineering)
To separate ore or metal from its containing rock or earth.
The clean product recovered in froth flotation or other methods of mineral separation.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Concentrate

 

(in mining), a product of mineral dressing that is more suitable for use or further processing than the initial raw material. In most cases, direct use of the extracted rock or its metallurgical or chemical processing is economically unfeasible and sometimes even technically impossible. A concentrate may have a high content of a valuable component (such as a metal), a small quantity of impurities (for example, iron and titanium in glass sand), or the required size (graded anthracite).

The quality of concentrates is regulated by government standards or by technical specifications that determine the size and the content of valuable components, undesirable impurities, and moisture. For example, concentrate must contain Pb > 70 percent, SiO2 < 2 percent, Cu < 1.5 percent, Zn < 2.5 percent, and Fe < 8 percent for lead hearth smelting and Pb > 30 percent, Cu < 4 percent, and Zn < 12 percent for shaft smelting.

A distinction is made among preconcentrate (coarse or crude concentrate), which is subjected to further dressing; bulk concentrate, which contains several valuable components; and final concentrate. In most cases, concentrate is a raw material for metallurgical, chemical, and other production processes.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Abbreviations: BCa, breast cancer; BrdU, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine; CNT, concentrative nucleoside transporter; CR, cimicifuga racemosa; ENT, equilibrative nucleoside transporter; 5-FU, 5-fluorouracil; HPLC, high-pressure liquid chromatography: NBTI, nitrobenzylthioinosine; NMG, N-methyl-D-glucamine; NT, nucleoside transporter; PCa, prostate cancer; qPCR, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction; siRNA, short-interfering RNA.
Long-term concentrative meditation and cognitive performance among older adults.
The research was implemented in the framework of already completed investigations on concentrative limits of mutual solubility, as well as physical and chemical properties and the optimal ratio of the components of biofuels.
Taken together, these data show that, in the hSERT N101 mutant background, [Ca.sup.2+] binding is sufficient to generate substrate translocation but does not contribute to concentrative uptake.
Moreover, in order to totally collect the solar thermal energy of the sunlight by Fresnel lens, letting the concentrative sunlight to totally illuminate on the heating element without any heat loss is very important.
Its unusuality points, on my reading, to a sense of detachment on the part of the persona and thus a marked concentrative focus on the task.
The findings of the study reveal that the business of housing finance is highly concentrative in nature and revolves around a few players only.
Indeed, Buber himself referred to forms of "concentrative colonialism" for Palestinians as if such proposals were politically neutral and acceptable.
BAIJAL, S., SRINIVASAN, N., 2010, Theta activity and meditative states: spectral changes during concentrative meditation.
This manipulation involves focusing attention on a stimulus event (concentrative meditation, Benson's 'relaxation response').
(2007: 10), meditation has been classified according to "the primary goal of practice (therapeutic or spiritual), the direction of the attention (mindfulness, concentrative, and practices that shift between the field or background perception and experience and an object within the field), the kind of anchor employed (a word, breath, sound, object or sensation), and according to the posture used (motionless sitting or moving)".