Concentrate

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concentrate

[′kän·sən‚trāt]
(chemistry)
To increase the amount of a dissolved substance by evaporation.
(mining engineering)
To separate ore or metal from its containing rock or earth.
The clean product recovered in froth flotation or other methods of mineral separation.

Concentrate

 

(in mining), a product of mineral dressing that is more suitable for use or further processing than the initial raw material. In most cases, direct use of the extracted rock or its metallurgical or chemical processing is economically unfeasible and sometimes even technically impossible. A concentrate may have a high content of a valuable component (such as a metal), a small quantity of impurities (for example, iron and titanium in glass sand), or the required size (graded anthracite).

The quality of concentrates is regulated by government standards or by technical specifications that determine the size and the content of valuable components, undesirable impurities, and moisture. For example, concentrate must contain Pb > 70 percent, SiO2 < 2 percent, Cu < 1.5 percent, Zn < 2.5 percent, and Fe < 8 percent for lead hearth smelting and Pb > 30 percent, Cu < 4 percent, and Zn < 12 percent for shaft smelting.

A distinction is made among preconcentrate (coarse or crude concentrate), which is subjected to further dressing; bulk concentrate, which contains several valuable components; and final concentrate. In most cases, concentrate is a raw material for metallurgical, chemical, and other production processes.

References in periodicals archive ?
a highly unstable, emotionally vulnerable, or fragmented sense of self), concentrative forms of meditation appear helpful to such people (Boorstein, 1997).
2007: 10), meditation has been classified according to "the primary goal of practice (therapeutic or spiritual), the direction of the attention (mindfulness, concentrative, and practices that shift between the field or background perception and experience and an object within the field), the kind of anchor employed (a word, breath, sound, object or sensation), and according to the posture used (motionless sitting or moving)".
Based on the existing status of data scale, organization setting and function dividing, the project adopts the concentrative data management mode, the system database can realize the following request:
Unlike concentrative meditation--in which practitioners focus attention on a single object such as a word (mantra), body part, or external object--in mindfulness meditation participants bring their attention to a wide range of objects (such as breath, body, emotions, or thoughts) as they appear in moment-by-moment awareness.
Sweet, "Meditation and attention: A comparison of the effects of concentrative and mindfulness meditation on sustained attention," Mental Health, Religion and Culture 2 (1999), 59-70; Heleen Slater et al.
Though the party seeks to forward certain modes of thought and community--notably, internationalism and the critique of capital--Marx is at pains to stress that it is not a concentrative articulation, but a dispersive one.
Concentrative transport of amino acids is driven by the energy stored in electrochemical gradients, typically through co-transport with sodium ions (Saier, 2000).
Composition and Concentrative Properties of Human Urine.
2] 215 at T II 454a9: "the characteristics of a woman have nothing to do with it, only the mind develops concentrative absorption and contemplates with vision the supreme Dharma.
These two forms of mindfulness attention parallel the two predominant forms of meditational attention: one is receptive mindfulness, a sustained nonselective alertness, a state of observing everything that enters the mind without reacting to it, like a mirror; the other is a concentrative practice leading to absorption, focusing undivided attention on a selected image or idea, also without reacting to it, like a laser (Washburn, 1995).