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1. Brit a reduction in the usual price of a ticket granted to a special group of customers
2. any grant of rights, land, or property by a government, local authority, corporation, or individual
3. US and Canadian
a. the right to maintain a subsidiary business on a lessor's premises
b. the premises so granted or the business so maintained
c. a free rental period for such premises
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an agreement granting, under specified terms, rights for the exploitation of natural resources and enterprises belonging to a country or municipality. In capitalist countries, concessionaires are usually large monopolies which use the concession to make monopolistic profits.

In the era of imperialism, international concessions developed extensively, enabling the imperialist powers to ensure raw materials for themselves and to preserve their economic influence in developing countries. Examples of such concessions are the petroleum concessions of imperialist monopolies in the Middle East and North Africa. These concessions, particularly those granted before World War II or in the early postwar years, covered vast areas and were given for long terms. Concessions in Bahrain, Trucial Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Muscat and Oman cover the entire country. The Bahrain Petroleum Company received a concession for 91 years and the Kuwait Oil Company for 92 years. The concession agreements granted the foreign monopolies the exclusive right of extraction, processing, and marketing of petroleum and guaranteed them the right to build means of transportation, pipelines, ports, and other necessary installations.

In the early 1950’s, with the growth and strengthening of the world socialist system and the upsurge in the liberation movement, the imperialists were forced to agree to increase payments for their concessions in a number of Middle Eastern and North African countries. Previously specified payments were replaced by the principle of an equal division of profits, although the colonial nature of the existing concessions remained unchanged. Since the export of petroleum is the main source of revenue for many Middle Eastern and North African countries, they began to coordinate their efforts to gain more advantageous terms for the concessions they granted.

In 1960 the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was formed to work out a uniform policy aimed at changing the unequal terms of concession agreements, increasing petroleum revenues, and developing national petroleum industries. OPEC launched an offensive against the oil monopolies and achieved significant success. By 1973 OPEC was making decisions that hitherto had been made exclusively by foreign monopolies, particularly those concerning prices and the distribution of profits from the extraction of crude oil between the producing countries and the monopolies.

The concessions that existed in the USSR in the period of transition from capitalism to socialism were fundamentally different economically and politically. The decree of Nov. 23, 1920, permitted the granting of concessions in order to attract foreign capital into industries and regions that the Soviet government was unable to develop at the time. V. I. Lenin thus described the aim of these concessions: “We make sacrifices giving to the foreign capitalists millions of the most valuable materials … , but at the same time we must get the advantages we need, that is, an increase in production volume and, if possible, the improvement of the condition of our workers, both those employed in concession enterprises and those not employed by them” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 43, p. 190). Under the dictatorship of the proletariat, concessions were used only to the extent that they could be useful for the development of the national economy, and they did not in the least affect the economic independence of the USSR. Concessions in the USSR played an auxiliary role in economic construction and were not extensive. By 1937 all concession agreements were canceled with the con-sent of the concessionaires.


Lenin, V. I. “Zakliuchitel’noe slovo po dokladu o kontsessiakh.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 42.
Lenin, V. I. Ibid., pp. 118–24, 126–27.
Lenin, V. I. “Doklad o kontsessiakh.” Ibid., vol. 43.
Lenin, V. I. “Russkoi kolonii v Severnoi Amerike.” Ibid., vol. 45.
Lenin, V. I. A. P. Serebrovskomu. (Letter.) Ibid., vol. 52.
Lenin, V. I. “Telegramma kraevomu ekonomicheskomu soveshchaniu lugo-Vostoka.” Ibid., vol. 54.
Lenin, V. . Armandu Hammeru. (Letter.) Ibid., vol. 54.
Lenin, V. I. I. V. Stalinu dlia chlenov Politbiuro TsK RKP (b). (Letter.) Ibid.
Andreasian, R. N., and A. Ia. El’ianov. Blizhnii Vostok, neft’ i nezavisi-most’. Moscow, 1961.
Levin, A. Ia. Sotsial’no-ekonomicheskie uklady v SSSR v period perekhoda ot kapitalizma k sotsializmu. Moscow, 1967.
Mikdashi, Z. A Financial Analysis of Middle Eastern Oil Concessions 1905–1965. New York [1966].


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


i. Permission allowed by a designated authority to operate an aircraft even when there is some shortfall in terms of serviceability of some system.
ii. Permission granted for continued use of a component for a specific period of time when it is due for servicing or replacement. This is also applicable to servicing of the complete aircraft.
An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
References in periodicals archive ?
"Due to the number of applicants for eligible free transport spaces on this route, we are unfortunately no longer able to offer the same number of concessionary spaces.
"Some other suggestions were made, including having one-off payment or annual charge for the concessionary passes, restricting travel times or applying means testing."
Among the concessionary rates that would revert to their 2012 levels are mechanically deboned or separated meat of chicken (HS 0207.14.91), from 5 percent to 40 percent; buttermilk (HS 0403.90.10), from 1 percent to 3 percent; butter (HS 0405.10.00), from 5 percent to 7 percent; and potatoes (HS 2004.10.00), from zero to 10 percent.
The JTC report warns that withdrawing concessionary fares on the Metro would actually worsen the problem because the resulting increased demand for free bus travel would exceed the income generated by charging a commercial Metro fare to those previously eligible for the concession.
Cllr Thomas added: "The impact of the increase in the cost of the concessionary seats has not had a detrimental impact on the numbers requesting the service however, the number of pupils purchasing concessionary seats are historically low in number.
The SBI chairperson rebuked other provinces for their lack of proactive approach, stating they requested concessionary loans but were informed of their exhaustion for CPEC.
The new checks will reduce potential misuse and fraud while protecting passengers who are entitled to and benefit from concessionary travel.
SOME while back I suggested, via this page, that a 50p day ticket for concessionary fare card holders might generate sufficient revenue for Cardiff Bus to reinstate "normal" service for Rhiwbina and Whitchurch, and possibly also lead to the reinstatement of staff sacked by the company.
IT is very interesting to read reports that Centro want to discontinue ring and ride and possibly the older people's concessionary travel pass to save money.
The companies went into administration, leaving a question mark over the future of those workers and former miners' concessionary fuel allowance payments to which they were entitled under a deal first struck with unions in the 1980s.
Thousands of recipients of the free coal - supplied for many years to former longserving mineworkers and their families - will no longer receive the concessionary fuel allowance, equivalent to heating costs of more than PS1,000 a year.
28 December 2012 a[euro]" Russian infrastructure and bridge-building firm Mostotrest OAO (MCX:MSTT) said on Friday it had concluded the purchase of a 50% interest in North-West Concessionary Company LLC (NWCC) for RUB7.78bn (USD255.6m/EUR193.9m) in cash.