concordat


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concordat

(kənkôr`dăt), formal agreement, specifically between the pope, in his spiritual capacity, and the temporal authority of a state. Its juridical status is now generally accepted as being a contract between church and statechurch and state,
the relationship between the religion or religions of a nation and the civil government of that nation, especially the relationship between the Christian church and various civil governments.
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 and as such it is a treaty governed by international laws. The term concordat has also been applied to other agreements; thus, in the Swiss Confederation before 1848 federal decisions were called concordats. The fundamental antithesis between church and state found particularly violent expression in the quarrels over investitureinvestiture,
in feudalism, ceremony by which an overlord transferred a fief to a vassal or by which, in ecclesiastical law, an elected cleric received the pastoral ring and staff (the symbols of spiritual office) signifying the transfer of the office.
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 during the Middle Ages and gave rise to the practice of concluding concordats. The earliest agreement to be called a concordat (see Worms, Concordat ofWorms, Concordat of,
1122, agreement reached by Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V to put an end to the struggle over investiture. By its terms the emperor guaranteed free election of bishops and abbots and renounced the right to invest them with ring and staff, the
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, 1122) was a dual proclamation rather than a bilateral act. The Concordat of 1516 between Pope Leo X and King Francis I of France, which abolished the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (see pragmatic sanctionpragmatic sanction,
decision of state dealing with a matter of great importance to a community or a whole state and having the force of fundamental law. The term originated in Roman law and was used on the continent of Europe until modern times.
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), gave the king the right to nominate bishops, abbots, and priors but reserved to the pope the right of confirmation and special rights of appointment. That right was revoked at the States-General of Orléans in 1561, and the struggle between GallicanismGallicanism
, in French Roman Catholicism, tradition of resistance to papal authority. It was in opposition to ultramontanism, the view that accorded the papacy complete authority over the universal church.
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 and ultramontanismultramontanism
[Lat.,=beyond the mountains, i.e., the Alps], formerly, point of view of Roman Catholics who supported the pope as supreme head of the church, as distinct from those who professed Gallicanism or other tendencies opposing the papal jurisdiction.
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 was resumed, to last until the French Revolution. The Concordat of 1801Concordat of 1801,
agreement between Napoleon Bonaparte and Pope Pius VII that reestablished the Roman Catholic Church in France. Napoleon took the initiative in negotiating this agreement; he recognized that reconciliation with the church was politic.
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, most famous of all concordats, regulated the status of the church in France for a century. In the 19th and 20th cent. numerous concordats were concluded. The appointment of bishops still remained an important issue, but the advance of secularism gave increasing importance to the status of religious education, monastic orders, and church property and to the seemingly conflicting loyalties of Roman Catholics to the state and to the church. In the Catholic countries of Latin America the conflicts and adjustments between church and state gave rise to a number of concordats. The concordat of 1855 with Austria gave vast rights to the church, but it was abrogated by Austria upon the proclamation of papal infallibility. The KulturkampfKulturkampf
[Ger.,=conflict of cultures], the conflict between the German government under Bismarck and the Roman Catholic Church. The promulgation (1870) of the dogma of the infallibility of the pope in matters of faith and morals within the church sparked the conflict; it
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 between Otto von Bismarck and the papacy ended (1887) with a modus vivendi, which was a tentative agreement and not called a concordat. The status of the papacy in Italy was regulated in 1929 by the Lateran TreatyLateran Treaty,
concordat between the Holy See and the kingdom of Italy signed in 1929 in the Lateran Palace, Rome, by Cardinal Gasparri for Pius XI and by Benito Mussolini for Victor Emmanuel III. One of the important negotiators was Cardinal Pacelli, later Pope Pius XII.
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. The threat of National Socialism (Nazism) to the Roman Catholic Church prompted the concordat of 1933 with Adolf Hitler, who violated it from the start. In Spain, where Francisco Franco had abrogated the concordat of 1931, a provisional agreement with the Vatican over the appointment of bishops was reached in 1941. After World War II a number of concordats (notably that with Poland) were abrogated by Communist regimes. A new concordat with Spain was signed in 1953.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Concordat

 

an agreement between the pope as head of the Catholic Church and a state; it regulates the status of the Catholic Church in the state, its rights in marital and family relations and the schools, and so forth.

The first Concordat was signed in Worms in 1122 between the pope and the German emperor; it delineated the functions of the secular and clerical authority in the appointment of bishops, thus ending the struggle over investiture. The most well-known concordats were the Concordat of Bologna of 1516 and the concordat between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon in 1801, which defined the status of the Catholic Church in France. In 1929 the pope concluded a concordat with the government of Mussolini; this took place simultaneously with the Lateran Treaty, which recognized the sovereignty of the pope over the territory of the Vatican.

REFERENCES

Lavretskii, I. R. Vatikan. Moscow, 1957.
Sheinman, M. Vatikan mezhdu dvumia mirovymi voinami. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

concordat

a pact or treaty, esp one between the Vatican and another state concerning the interests of religion in that state
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
(17) It must also be pointed out that concordats currently negotiated by the Holy See are based upon the 1983 Code of Canon Law for countries belonging primarily to the Latin Rite.
their reign of terror to which the whole nation was subjected ." Yet Cardinal Pacelli justified the concordat on the grounds that he had to face the reality of the Nazi regime and gain diplomatic leverage with a signed document, for if the German government violated the concordat, Ivone reported, then "the Vatican would have at least a treaty on which to base a protest."
(16) The Concordat is a legal agreement between the Roman seat and a country where the confession is Roman-Catholic.
The difference in treatment derives from the fact that Catholic Church has legal personality under international public law and may therefore conclude an international treaty (the Concordat), while other denominations--without international legal personality-- enter into an agreement under domestic public law.
A concordat is a pact, a bilateral international agreement between the Vatican and another state, aiming at solving the problems that both parties are interested in.
The spokesman added: "We had every reason to believe the policy could be delivered through the concordat."
In trying to answer this question, this article will first consider the concordat in light of the Second Vatican Council and the new canonical codification and then summarize the data emerging from practice, with special regard to the concordats concluded during the pontificate of John Paul II.
Early in 1933 Hitler and Pacelli agreed to a Reich Concordat, an international treaty between the Holy See and the German state.
Described as a 'ministerial concordat', the programme aims to radically reform public services, 'enabling people to live their own lives as they wish, confident that services are of high quality, are safe and promote their own individual needs for independence, well-being and dignity'.
Both Pius XI and Eugenio Pacelli, his secretary of state and the future Pope Pius XII, wanted to leave the door open for improved relations and feared that too forceful a condemnation of Nazism would endanger the Vatican's concordat with the Nazi regime, signed four years earlier.
Richard Lambert, director general of the CBI, and Brendan Barber, general secretary of the TUC, were the first to sign a 'concordat' supporting the development and implementation of the Work Wise UK campaign and objectives.
Other than the Constitution, the two most important documents relating to religious freedom are the 2001 Religious Freedom Act and the 1940 Concordat with the Holy See.