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anything that has mass and occupies space. Matter is sometimes called koinomatter (Gr. koinos=common) to distinguish it from antimatter, or matter composed of antiparticles.
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 in the form of a gas of atoms, molecules, or elementary particles that have been so chilled that their motion is virtually halted and as a consequence they lose their separate identities and merge into a single entity. A Bose-Einstein condensate, the fifth state of matterstates of matter,
forms of matter differing in several properties because of differences in the motions and forces of the molecules (or atoms, ions, or elementary particles) of which they are composed.
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, is formed at low temperatures when a significant number of the elementary particles classified as bosons (see Bose-Einstein statisticsBose-Einstein statistics,
class of statistics that applies to elementary particles called bosons, which include the photon, pion, and the W and Z particles. Bosons have integral values of the quantum mechanical property called spin and are "gregarious" in the sense that an
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) collapse into the same quantum state. A similar condensate that consists of fermions (see Fermi-Dirac statisticsFermi-Dirac statistics,
class of statistics that applies to particles called fermions. Fermions have half-integral values of the quantum mechanical property called spin and are "antisocial" in the sense that two fermions cannot exist in the same state.
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) instead of bosons is known as a fermionic condensate, the sixth state of matter.

Such condensates were predicted by Albert EinsteinEinstein, Albert
, 1879–1955, American theoretical physicist, known for the formulation of the relativity theory, b. Ulm, Germany. He is recognized as one of the greatest physicists of all time.
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 in 1924 based on the system of quantum statistics formulated by the Indian mathematician Satyendra Nath Bose. Quantum theory asserts that atoms and other elementary particles can be thought of as waves. Einstein proposed that as atoms approach absolute zero (−273.15°C;), the waves expand in inverse proportion to their momentum until they fall into the same quantum state and finally overlap, essentially behaving like a single atom. The phenomenon could not be observed, however, until techniques were developed to reduce temperatures to within 20 billionths of a degree above absolute zero. In 1995, Eric A. Cornell and Carl E. Wieman isolated a rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate under laboratory conditions; they shared the 2001 Nobel Prize in physics with Wolfgang Ketterle for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates.

A fermionic condensate is far more difficult to achieve because the Pauli exclusion principleexclusion principle,
physical principle enunciated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925 stating that no two electrons in an atom can occupy the same energy state simultaneously. The energy states, or levels, in an atom are described in the quantum theory by various values of four different
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 prohibits two or more fermions from occupying the same quantum state. In 1957, John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and Robert Schrieffer suggested that electrons, which are fermions, could form what are now known as Cooper pairs, which act like bosons; such pairings might make a fermionic condensate possible. Murray Holland much later suggested that fermions could pair up at higher temperatures by subjecting them to a magnetic field. In 2003, Deborah Jin and Rudolf Grimm were able to get fermionic atoms to bond together to form molecular bosons and thus form a Bose-Einstein condensate, but not a fermionic condensate. Later that year, applying a time-varying magnetic field to potassium atoms, Jin achieved Cooper pairings and the subsequent formation of a fermionic condensate.

It is believed that these state of matterstates of matter,
forms of matter differing in several properties because of differences in the motions and forces of the molecules (or atoms, ions, or elementary particles) of which they are composed.
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 have never existed naturally anywhere in the universe, since the low temperatures required for their existence cannot be found, even in outer space. Condensates may be useful in the study of superconductivitysuperconductivity,
abnormally high electrical conductivity of certain substances. The phenomenon was discovered in 1911 by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, who found that the resistance of mercury dropped suddenly to zero at a temperature of about 4.
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 and superfluiditysuperfluidity,
tendency of liquid helium below a temperature of 2.19°K; to flow freely, even upward, with little apparent friction. Helium becomes a liquid when it is cooled to 4.2°K;.
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 and in refining measurements of time and distance.

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The liquid product from a condenser. Also known as condensate liquid.
A light hydrocarbon mixture formed as a liquid product in a gas-recycling plant through expansion and cooling of the gas.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


The liquid formed by the condensation of a vapor; in steam heating, water is condensed from steam; in air conditioning, water is extracted from air.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
According to S&P Global Platts, South Korean companies have significantly decreased their purchase of gas condensates from Iran.
"Considering the plans, there will be a fixed trend of oil and gas condensate offerings every Monday, where each being traded in one week at a time," he said.
not vigorously enforce oil sanctions this time around, the export data on condensates show that that Iran will be able to exploit this loophole again.
The GDZ drain senses when there is condensate inside the internal reservoir and opens to expel the condensate liquid then quickly closes before allowing any valuable compressed air to escape, this gives you the peace of mind that your condensate is being drained without the operator intervention and not wasting energy or compressed air.
The principle of condensate throttling is that the turbine control system opens the governor valves to utilize the reserve steam storage capacity of the boiler.
Doing so ensured that atoms in the condensate naturally shuffled themselves around the standing wave until each "well" between the two zero points of a wave contained exactly the same number of atoms.
Since the formation of condensate on the cooling coils occurs in a process similar to distillation, the resulting condensate is slightly acidic and lacks total dissolved solids.
Crude shipments in October are set for a three-month low of 2 mbpd, but exports of condensate are expected to rise 22 per cent from September to 559,000 bpd -- excluding barrels loaded out of storage -- the highest volume since sanctions were lifted.
This explains the drive of Qatar for condensate refining and probably the reason why the complex Al Shaheen crude oil refinery project was shelved in 2010 even after the front end engineering and design was made in 2008.
The US and Iranian light oil shipments have posed competition to Qatari condensate exports, but the new splitter should help Qatar use some of its condensate domestically.
The Hamriyah terminal is for the loading of condensate and LPG produced in Sharjah (see down22UAEref30May16 & gmt21-UAE-geoField23May16).
"We have received strong interest from current customers and positive feedback from prospective customers regarding our new condensate pipeline project," said Mark Hurley, BKEP's CEO.