(redirected from condensates)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.
Related to condensates: condensate liquid


anything that has mass and occupies space. Matter is sometimes called koinomatter (Gr. koinos=common) to distinguish it from antimatter, or matter composed of antiparticles.
..... Click the link for more information.
 in the form of a gas of atoms, molecules, or elementary particles that have been so chilled that their motion is virtually halted and as a consequence they lose their separate identities and merge into a single entity. A Bose-Einstein condensate, the fifth state of matterstates of matter,
forms of matter differing in several properties because of differences in the motions and forces of the molecules (or atoms, ions, or elementary particles) of which they are composed.
..... Click the link for more information.
, is formed at low temperatures when a significant number of the elementary particles classified as bosons (see Bose-Einstein statisticsBose-Einstein statistics,
class of statistics that applies to elementary particles called bosons, which include the photon, pion, and the W and Z particles. Bosons have integral values of the quantum mechanical property called spin and are "gregarious" in the sense that an
..... Click the link for more information.
) collapse into the same quantum state. A similar condensate that consists of fermions (see Fermi-Dirac statisticsFermi-Dirac statistics,
class of statistics that applies to particles called fermions. Fermions have half-integral values of the quantum mechanical property called spin and are "antisocial" in the sense that two fermions cannot exist in the same state.
..... Click the link for more information.
) instead of bosons is known as a fermionic condensate, the sixth state of matter.

Such condensates were predicted by Albert EinsteinEinstein, Albert
, 1879–1955, American theoretical physicist, known for the formulation of the relativity theory, b. Ulm, Germany. He is recognized as one of the greatest physicists of all time.
..... Click the link for more information.
 in 1924 based on the system of quantum statistics formulated by the Indian mathematician Satyendra Nath Bose. Quantum theory asserts that atoms and other elementary particles can be thought of as waves. Einstein proposed that as atoms approach absolute zero (−273.15°C;), the waves expand in inverse proportion to their momentum until they fall into the same quantum state and finally overlap, essentially behaving like a single atom. The phenomenon could not be observed, however, until techniques were developed to reduce temperatures to within 20 billionths of a degree above absolute zero. In 1995, Eric A. Cornell and Carl E. Wieman isolated a rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate under laboratory conditions; they shared the 2001 Nobel Prize in physics with Wolfgang Ketterle for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates.

A fermionic condensate is far more difficult to achieve because the Pauli exclusion principleexclusion principle,
physical principle enunciated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925 stating that no two electrons in an atom can occupy the same energy state simultaneously. The energy states, or levels, in an atom are described in the quantum theory by various values of four different
..... Click the link for more information.
 prohibits two or more fermions from occupying the same quantum state. In 1957, John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and Robert Schrieffer suggested that electrons, which are fermions, could form what are now known as Cooper pairs, which act like bosons; such pairings might make a fermionic condensate possible. Murray Holland much later suggested that fermions could pair up at higher temperatures by subjecting them to a magnetic field. In 2003, Deborah Jin and Rudolf Grimm were able to get fermionic atoms to bond together to form molecular bosons and thus form a Bose-Einstein condensate, but not a fermionic condensate. Later that year, applying a time-varying magnetic field to potassium atoms, Jin achieved Cooper pairings and the subsequent formation of a fermionic condensate.

It is believed that these state of matterstates of matter,
forms of matter differing in several properties because of differences in the motions and forces of the molecules (or atoms, ions, or elementary particles) of which they are composed.
..... Click the link for more information.
 have never existed naturally anywhere in the universe, since the low temperatures required for their existence cannot be found, even in outer space. Condensates may be useful in the study of superconductivitysuperconductivity,
abnormally high electrical conductivity of certain substances. The phenomenon was discovered in 1911 by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, who found that the resistance of mercury dropped suddenly to zero at a temperature of about 4.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and superfluiditysuperfluidity,
tendency of liquid helium below a temperature of 2.19°K; to flow freely, even upward, with little apparent friction. Helium becomes a liquid when it is cooled to 4.2°K;.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and in refining measurements of time and distance.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


The liquid product from a condenser. Also known as condensate liquid.
A light hydrocarbon mixture formed as a liquid product in a gas-recycling plant through expansion and cooling of the gas.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


The liquid formed by the condensation of a vapor; in steam heating, water is condensed from steam; in air conditioning, water is extracted from air.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
On the example of copper condensates, produced in electron beam deposition from a vapor phase in vacuum, an effect of substrate temperature on characteristics of their micro- and substructure was studied.
According to S&P Global Platts, South Korean companies have significantly decreased their purchase of gas condensates from Iran.
The problem stemmed from the way the Obama administration granted sanctions exemptions for countries that "significantly reduced" their crude oil purchases from Iran--it did not take imports of condensates into consideration.
New GDZ Series electronic condensate drains for compressed air and industrial gases, with CompAir brand.
It tested 7.32 MCF/d of gas and 735 b/d of condensate. It was a re-entry of a Tarfa-1 well drilled in 1984 by Amoco, which found gas in Triassic TAGI sands but did not test it because of technical problems.
When a laser beam is fired through this cloud, it creates a "standing wave" - one that divides the condensate into roughly, but not exactly, equal-sized clusters.
In 1986, Opec condensates were 1.5 million barrels a day and as the volumes increased, the issue became very contentious at official meetings without finding a solution to include these volumes within countries' production in deciding production levels or quotas.
The official, who declined to be named, was quoted by Reuters as saying: "Qatar is exporting around 30 cargoes (of condensate) a month.
Iran's Pars Special Energy Economic Zone (PSEEZ) exported 10 consignments of gas condensates worth more than 800 million dollars during the second Iranian calendar month of Ordibehesht (20 April- 20 May).
"In line with Dubai's vision of providing state-of-the-art infrastructure and public services to meet the increasing demand, especially in the energy sector, Enoc is currently finalising contracts with leading producers in the region for purchase of condensates in the coming years," the government-owned company said.
"This amount of gas condensates was transported to various countries in nine shipments at a weight of more than 1.3 million tonnes," he said.