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anything that has mass and occupies space. Matter is sometimes called koinomatter (Gr. koinos=common) to distinguish it from antimatter, or matter composed of antiparticles.
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 in the form of a gas of atoms, molecules, or elementary particles that have been so chilled that their motion is virtually halted and as a consequence they lose their separate identities and merge into a single entity. A Bose-Einstein condensate, the fifth state of matterstates of matter,
forms of matter differing in several properties because of differences in the motions and forces of the molecules (or atoms, ions, or elementary particles) of which they are composed.
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, is formed at low temperatures when a significant number of the elementary particles classified as bosons (see Bose-Einstein statisticsBose-Einstein statistics,
class of statistics that applies to elementary particles called bosons, which include the photon, pion, and the W and Z particles. Bosons have integral values of the quantum mechanical property called spin and are "gregarious" in the sense that an
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) collapse into the same quantum state. A similar condensate that consists of fermions (see Fermi-Dirac statisticsFermi-Dirac statistics,
class of statistics that applies to particles called fermions. Fermions have half-integral values of the quantum mechanical property called spin and are "antisocial" in the sense that two fermions cannot exist in the same state.
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) instead of bosons is known as a fermionic condensate, the sixth state of matter.

Such condensates were predicted by Albert EinsteinEinstein, Albert
, 1879–1955, American theoretical physicist, known for the formulation of the relativity theory, b. Ulm, Germany. He is recognized as one of the greatest physicists of all time.
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 in 1924 based on the system of quantum statistics formulated by the Indian mathematician Satyendra Nath Bose. Quantum theory asserts that atoms and other elementary particles can be thought of as waves. Einstein proposed that as atoms approach absolute zero (−273.15°C;), the waves expand in inverse proportion to their momentum until they fall into the same quantum state and finally overlap, essentially behaving like a single atom. The phenomenon could not be observed, however, until techniques were developed to reduce temperatures to within 20 billionths of a degree above absolute zero. In 1995, Eric A. Cornell and Carl E. Wieman isolated a rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate under laboratory conditions; they shared the 2001 Nobel Prize in physics with Wolfgang Ketterle for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates.

A fermionic condensate is far more difficult to achieve because the Pauli exclusion principleexclusion principle,
physical principle enunciated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925 stating that no two electrons in an atom can occupy the same energy state simultaneously. The energy states, or levels, in an atom are described in the quantum theory by various values of four different
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 prohibits two or more fermions from occupying the same quantum state. In 1957, John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and Robert Schrieffer suggested that electrons, which are fermions, could form what are now known as Cooper pairs, which act like bosons; such pairings might make a fermionic condensate possible. Murray Holland much later suggested that fermions could pair up at higher temperatures by subjecting them to a magnetic field. In 2003, Deborah Jin and Rudolf Grimm were able to get fermionic atoms to bond together to form molecular bosons and thus form a Bose-Einstein condensate, but not a fermionic condensate. Later that year, applying a time-varying magnetic field to potassium atoms, Jin achieved Cooper pairings and the subsequent formation of a fermionic condensate.

It is believed that these state of matterstates of matter,
forms of matter differing in several properties because of differences in the motions and forces of the molecules (or atoms, ions, or elementary particles) of which they are composed.
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 have never existed naturally anywhere in the universe, since the low temperatures required for their existence cannot be found, even in outer space. Condensates may be useful in the study of superconductivitysuperconductivity,
abnormally high electrical conductivity of certain substances. The phenomenon was discovered in 1911 by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, who found that the resistance of mercury dropped suddenly to zero at a temperature of about 4.
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 and superfluiditysuperfluidity,
tendency of liquid helium below a temperature of 2.19°K; to flow freely, even upward, with little apparent friction. Helium becomes a liquid when it is cooled to 4.2°K;.
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 and in refining measurements of time and distance.


The liquid product from a condenser. Also known as condensate liquid.
A light hydrocarbon mixture formed as a liquid product in a gas-recycling plant through expansion and cooling of the gas.


The liquid formed by the condensation of a vapor; in steam heating, water is condensed from steam; in air conditioning, water is extracted from air.
References in periodicals archive ?
Condensates are also rising in other producing countries, especially in US, as a result of the surge in natural gas production.
That didn't really make much difference until late last year when the production of condensates from the South Pars gasfield began to rise exponentially, allowing foreign buyers--especially China--to buy Iranian condensate without worrying about violating the US quotas on their purchases of Iranian oil.
Angola LNG said that it has sold its first condensate cargo from its LNG export plant in Soyo to state-owned Sonangol.
Iran's Pars Special Energy Economic Zone (PSEEZ) exported 10 consignments of gas condensates worth more than 800 million dollars during the second Iranian calendar month of Ordibehesht (20 April- 20 May).
This will further strengthen the volume of condensates that the company is planning to import from markets in the Middle East and Far East.
This amount of gas condensates was transported to various countries in nine shipments at a weight of more than 1.
In the past two years, collapsing gas prices have forced drilling companies in the United States to shift from targeting dry gas fields to liquid-rich plays containing a mixture of gas and more valuable crude oil and condensate to keep paying the bills.
Taking these considerations into account, in this work, investigations were carried out into the effect of introduction of the iron atoms into the copper vapour flow on the characteristics of the sub-and microstructure of the vacuum condensates of copper.
Booming output of light condensate in the Middle East and Asia - with Qatar to produce 900,000 b/d of this by 2012 from 300,000 b/d in 2007 - offers refiners a cheap and fast way to make high profits, helping ease capacity strains after years of under-investment in the refining business on both sides of Suez.
He says that the technique opens new possibilities for studying not only Bose-Einstein condensates but also general properties of criticality.
With Atlas Copco's patented OSC concept, compressor operators benefit from high levels of condensate separation efficiency and filter lifetime performance.
NIST scientists had the simple theoretical insight that when a condensate is released from a rotating trap it flies apart under conditions in which angular momentum is conserved, preserving the anisotropy in the density distribution.