Conditioned Stimulus


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Conditioned Stimulus

 

a signal that causes a conditioned reflex; it may be any stimulus of an organism’s external or internal environment that is perceived by the sensory organs and that causes excitation in the cerebral cortex.

The conditioned stimulus precedes an unconditioned stimulus or coincides with it. Natural conditioned stimuli are used in unconditioned reinforcement; examples are the sight and smell of food. Artificial conditioned stimuli are more varied and do not have a direct relationship to the properties of the unconditioned stimulus; they become positive or negative conditioned signals only when a conditioned reflex is being developed. Conditioned stimuli that are indirect signals of the food-related, defensive, and sexual reflexes are of great importance in the adaptive behavior of animals.

References in periodicals archive ?
Once the respondent relation is established, repeated occurrences of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus weaken the S-R relation until the conditioned stimulus elicits no response.
Abbreviations: CR, conditioned response; CS, conditioned stimulus; EPSP, excitatory postsynaptic potential; IPSP, inhibitory postsynaptic potential; UR, unconditioned response; US, unconditioned stimulus.
If these results hold, conditioning children to acquire conditioned stimulus control for observing books may pay real dividends in their subsequent acquisition of reading skills.
Expanding upon the idea above, the conditioned stimulus was the reception of a putative telepathic message from the sender.
Pairing the conditioned stimulus (bell sound) with the unconditioned stimulus (smell or sight of food) eight or nine times brought about salivation to the sound of the tuning forks.
So while a young female is undergoing sexual imprinting, her father's red beak can become a positive conditioned stimulus associated with the father's other physical characteristics and his behavior patterns through spatial and temporal proximity, whereas her mother's orange beak color can become a negative conditioned stimulus explicitly unassociated with the male's features.
(4.) In the psychological terminology of classical conditioning, this means that a conditioned stimulus that has elicited a conditioned response can in turn be used as a second conditioned stimulus that can elicit the same conditioned response, even though it was never paired with the original unconditioned stimulus.
Thus, a direct performance-based criterion for the SSP procedure would have required a separate test, for example of whether the formerly neutral stimulus had acquired an effect as a conditioned stimulus for some conditioned response.
Notwithstanding, a key controversial issue refers to whether classical human conditioning is a low level process, or otherwise dependent on higher order cognitive processes such as contingency awareness between conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US).
Similarly, in simple classical conditioning situations in which the conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with the unconditioned stimulus (US) leading to the conditioned response (CR), binary CS-US associations seem to be the most commonly established (e.g., Colwill & Motzkin, 1994; Paredes-Olay, Abad, Gamez, & Rosas, 2002; Rescorla, 1973).
Previous studies have implicated a brain structure called the amygdala in the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear, this occurring when a stimulus (the conditioned stimulus, CS) becomes associated with an aversive object or event (the unconditioned stimulus, UCS).
In a recent and related experiment, with rats, Petrovich, Ross, Gallagher, and Holland (2007) have reported that a contextual conditioned stimulus (CS), which was paired with consumption of food pellets, enhanced consumption in animals that were not food-deprived on test.