conditioning


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conditioning:

see learninglearning,
in psychology, the process by which a relatively lasting change in potential behavior occurs as a result of practice or experience. Learning is distinguished from behavioral changes arising from such processes as maturation and illness, but does apply to motor skills,
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conditioning

a term used in LEARNING THEORY or BEHAVIOURISM meaning the process of training or changing behaviour by association and reinforcement. There are two basic types of conditioning – classical and operant.

Classical conditioning was defined by I. Pavlov (1911) in his research on the salivary reflex in dogs. He observed that if a neutral stimulus (NS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) so that they become ‘associated’, then the NS develops the same ability to evoke a response as the UCS. Thus the NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the response becomes a conditioned response (CR). This type of conditioning occurs only in involuntary behaviours such as salivation, sweating, heart rate and other behaviours controlled by the autonomic nervous system, and such a conditioned response may therefore be known as a CONDITIONED REFLEX. Reinforcement is delivered regardless of response, as it precedes it and is typically also the UCS (food in the case of Pavlovs experiment).

Operant or instrumental conditioning was defined and extensively researched by B.F. Skinner (1953). It involves training voluntary responses as the reinforcement is only delivered after the response and is contingent upon the response. Learning or conditioning involves the development of an association or bond between a stimulus and a response by reinforcing responses when they occur. Because reinforcement follows response, respondent behaviour can be manipulated by varying when the reinforcement is given (schedules of reinforcement). Learning is more resistant to extinction if the schedule of reinforcement used in training is related to the responses and is unpredictable. An example of this is gambling on a fruit machine. Extinction is the fading and disappearance of behaviour through non-reinforcement, e.g. socially unacceptable behaviour should be disregarded and not reinforced. Behaviour can be shaped towards a desirable end by the reinforcement of successive approximations to this. In this way, animals can be taught to do ‘tricks’ which would not be found in their normal repertoire of behaviour. Shaping principles underlie much of the control we exert over each other behaviour, especially childrens.

Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000

conditioning

[kən′dish·ən·iŋ]
(electronics)
Equipment modifications or adjustments necessary to match transmission levels and impedances or to provide equalization between facilities.
(graphic arts)
Restoration of microfilm for use after it has been stored for a period of time.
(science and technology)
Subjecting a material or organism to a stipulated treatment or stimulus so that it will respond in a uniform and desired manner to subsequent testing or processing.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

conditioning

Extra cost options in a private telephone line that improve performance by reducing distortion and amplifying weak signals.
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References in periodicals archive ?
During their tenures, these highly respected individuals witnessed the rapid acceleration of the strength and conditioning coaching profession to its status as a permanent fixture in athletics.
A 2 x 2 factorial design was used in a CER paradigm in lever press response with rats, one factor being the pre-exposure condition (pre-exposure or no-pre-exposure) and the other the intensity of the foot-shock employed as the US during conditioning (high or low).
The introduction of additives to a sand system cannot make up for poor sand conditioning practices and/or lira its to the engineering in a metalcasting facility.
SHUTTING OFF FEAR Scientists propose that fear conditioning establishes a new memory in the brain, and many studies in animals and people place that fear memory in the brain region known as the amygdala.
"We teach the basics of conditioning and warming up to the students in Levels One through Four in the first ten to fifteen minutes of each ballet class.
Although this process may not represent an intentional component of the police training process, desensitizing future veteran officers to the use of force begins with this type of conditioning. In fact, without some form of behavioral conditioning, officers may not be able to effectively use any type of injuring force against a suspect when the need arises.
* Benevolent Pain is good pain that is a normal result of overload within a conditioning program.
The new laboratory instrument has five components: a sample loading station, sample conditioning station, dynamic-mechanical test station, robotic transfer system, and computer controlled operating and data-analysis station.
Although the mechanisms for this type of conditioning are not understood, it is clear that life forms as simple as single-ceiled animals or as complex as human beings are capable of being conditioned.
And while there have been myriad advancements, ever-evolving scientific pronouncements, and continuing debates on a wide range of issues taking place at a frenetic pace, the following occurrences have left indelible fingerprints on the strength and conditioning profession:
Architects and engineers have always recognized the benefits of central air conditioning. The perimeter unit created problems with furniture placement and limited the designer's options for window coverings.