confectionery


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, Wikipedia.

confectionery,

delicacies or sweetmeats that have sugar as a principal ingredient, combined with coloring matter and flavoring and often with fruit or nuts. In the United States it is usually called candy, in Great Britain, sweets or boiled sweets. Nonchocolate candy is roughly divided into two classes, hard and soft; the distinction is based on the fact that sugar when boiled passes through definite stages during the process of crystallization. Fondant, or sugar cooked to the soft stage, is the basis of most fancy candies, such as chocolate creams.

Sweetmeats, long known in the Middle East and Asia and to the ancient Egyptians, were at first preserved or candied fruits, probably made with honey. One of the earliest functions of candy was to disguise unpleasant medicine, and prior to the 14th cent. confections were sold chiefly by physicians. Medieval physicians often used for this purpose sugarplate, a sweetmeat made of gum dragon, white sugar, and rosewater, beaten into a paste. One of the earliest confections still surviving is marzipan, known throughout Europe; it is made of almonds or other nuts, pounded to a paste and blended with sugar and white of egg. In the Middle Ages it was sometimes molded into fancy shapes and stamped with epigrams.

Sugarplums, made of boiled sugar, were known in England in the 17th cent., but it was not until the 19th cent. that candymaking became extensive. The display of British boiled sweets at the national exhibition of 1851 stimulated manufacture in other countries, especially in France. In the United States in the middle of the 19th cent. about 380 small factories were making lozenges, jujube paste, and stick candy, but most fine candy was imported. With the development of modern machinery and the increasing abundance of sugar, confectionery making became an important industry. In 2001, estimated retail sales of chocolate, other candy, and gum in the United States had reached $24 billion, and more 1,400 new items of candy were introduced.

Bibliography

See P. P. Gott, All about Candy and Chocolate (1958); B. W. Minifie, Chocolate, Cocoa and Confectionery (1970); E. Sullivan, ed., The Complete Book of Candy (1981); T. Richardson, Sweets (2002).

Confectionery

 

a food product generally containing a large amount of sugar, having a high caloric content and pleasant taste and smell, and easily assimilated by the body. Ingredients include sugar, syrup, honey, fruits and berries, wheat flour (sometimes oat, soy, corn, or rye flour), milk and butter, fats, starch, cocoa, nuts, eggs, acids, and gelatinizing agents and flavorings which are processed by heat and various mechanical means. The high nutritive value of confectioneries is due to the considerable carbohydrate, fat, and protein content (see Table 1). Many confections are enriched with vitamins.

On the basis of ingredients, methods of production, and final product, confectioneries fall into two main groups: (1) sugar confectionery, including caramels, candies, chocolates, and cocoa, fruit-marmalade sweets, halvah and other Oriental sweets, toffee, and dragée and (2) flour confectionery, including cookies, crackers, galettes, shortbread, wafers, cakes, pastries, and keks (a kind of cake without icing).

Confectioneries preserve their quality for a long period, and for this reason are used as food on trips and hikes and by athletes. There are also dietetic and therapeutic confectioneries, which differ chemically from ordinary confections. In diabetic sweets, the sugar substances are replaced by sorbitol or xylitol. Sweets for anemic patients are enriched with hematogen, a source of iron and whole protein. For those suffering from goiter and as a food supplement for the elderly, confections are enriched with trace elements and Laminaria saccharina, a source of iodine and alginic acid. Coffee is excluded from confectionery for children, and the amount of cocoa is kept to a minimum.

L. S. KUZNETSOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Operating in 20 countries, Cadbury Schweppes Americas Confectionery develops, manufactures and markets some of the best-loved confectionery and gum brands, Bazooka, Beldent, Bubbaloo, Bubblicious, Cadbury, Certs, Chiclets, Clorets, Deemint, Dentyne, Halls, Mantecol, Sour Patch, Swedish Fish and Trident.
Even Hershey, the manufacturer of over one billion pounds of chocolate a year, and undeniable leader in chocolate and nonchocolate--two of the four confectionery categories (gum and mints are the others)--recognizes the challenge.
Confectionery purchased for immediate consumption is usually motivated by an impulse and need for instant gratification.
Rising health-consciousness among consumers coupled with reduction of sugar in dietary consumption for weight control can push the demand for non-cocoa confectionery. Collaboration between confectionery manufacturers for meeting consumer goals of a balanced diet is likely to bode well.
"A responsible approach towards our product portfolio will help us to be recognised as offering the confectionery brands consumers feel best about purchasing."
Together, these machines create complete system solutions for confectionery production, beginning with highly automated weighing or mixing and ending with the cooling of a coated piece of confectionery.
The global functional confectionery market was worth about $7.4 billion in 2005, accounting for 24% of the total functional food market.
The company employs 50,000 people in confectionery worldwide, including 6,000 in the UK.
The company recently changed its name to Tangerine Confectionery from Toms Confectionery, a move which followed the purchase of the company by a new management team.
confectionery business unit of London-based Cadbury Schweppes plc (NYSE: CSG), a global company that manufactures, distributes, and markets branded confectionery beverage products in approximately 200 countries.
The National Confectioners Association represents more than 700 companies that manufacture and market the vast majority, of chocolate and non-chocolate confectionery in the United States.