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mediation, in law, type of intervention in which the disputing parties accept the offer of a third party to recommend a solution for their controversy. Mediation has long been a part of international law, frequently involving the use of an international commission, in a process known as by conciliation. Mediation differs from arbitration in being a diplomatic rather than a judicial procedure; thus, the parties to the dispute are not bound to accept the mediator's recommendation. Resort to mediation has become increasingly frequent, both for internal and international disputes. The Declaration of Paris (1856) expressed the hope that the signatories would ask for mediation in their disputes. At the Second Hague Conference (1907), the right of friendly powers to offer mediation was recognized. The Covenant of the League of Nations provided that the whole League, acting through the League Council, should offer conciliation, and the Charter of the United Nations requires all members to submit disputes to mediation on recommendation of the Security Council. Mediation has been successful in many cases of international conflict. The United States served as mediator between Bolivia and Chile (1882) and between Russia and Japan (1905). The United Nations served as a mediator in the conflict in Israel in 1948. In 1966, the Soviet Union mediated the border clashes between India and China. The Secretary-General of the United Nations mediated successfully in several international disputes, particularly that over Netherlands New Guinea (see Papua). Mediation has become increasingly important for internal disagreements as well, particularly in labor disputes. In the United States, the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service works toward a healthy relationship between labor and management, mediating disputes where necessary and promoting collective bargaining. Many state and local governments in the U.S. have similar organizations, each generally having the power to intervene when the public interest appears to be in jeopardy. National mediation services are also common in other nations, particularly among the Western democracies.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in international law, a form of peaceful settlement of disputes between states by means of negotiations with the participation of a third state, the mediator, on the basis of conditions advanced by the mediator. Mediation differs from good offices in that the mediator suggests specific proposals to serve as the basis of negotiations and of the settlement of the disputes.

The procedure of mediation is regulated by the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 and the Charter of the United Nations (art. 33). According to the UN Charter, various conventions, and current practice, the mediator may offer his services upon the request of the disputing parties, upon his own initiative, or upon the initiative of powers not party to the dispute. There have been times when the Soviet government has accepted the mediation of other states and has itself been a mediator. For instance, in 1945 the USSR accepted the mediation of the French provisional government in negotiations with Switzerland on the status of persons interned during the war.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
(24) Address by Alan Baker to a conference in Istanbul on "Conflict Mediation through Cultural Diplomacy in Current Areas of Conflict", [ middle-east/], 1 December 2013.
Each year in June, this global retreat convenes Special Representatives of the UN Secretary-General, representatives of key government players in conflict mediation as well as conflict parties and carefully selected actors from the private mediation sector.
Bashir might succeed in his ambition, an outcome that would have destroyed the African Union's credibility not only in Darfur but in conflict mediation elsewhere.
Augsburger quotes Roger Fisher and William Ury in their book Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In (Penguin, 1991) as a model of conflict mediation process based on Western values which I find extremely helpful: "1) Focus on interests, not on positions.
Yet practitioners routinely under-utilize history as a tool for conflict mediation and reconciliation under the traditional negotiating frameworks.
The same can be said for the feature articles in this issue, especially David Miller's piece on the "faith at work" movement and Partie Porter and Cecily Sawyer-Harmon's argument for adding conflict mediation to the EAP Cote Technology.
The conflict mediation started in November last year.
Sign up for another conflict mediation course hoping to meet that special someone?
Students were asked to apply information that they had learned about media violence and conflict mediation to answer questionnaire items as well as to complete a media clip analysis exercise.
The ready availability of lethal weapons of war in the wrong hands is a serious impediment to conflict mediation, and a force protection concern for our militaries, including peacekeepers.
* To discover a safe place to practice conflict mediation.
The Archbishop told the House: "Faith communities and religious leaders have distinct and distinctive qualities in relation to the realm of conflict mediation and conciliation."

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