Nystagmus

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nystagmus

[nə′stag·məs]
(medicine)
Involuntary oscillatory movement of the eyeballs.

Nystagmus

 

an involuntary, rapid rhythmic oscillation of the eyeballs. The bilateral form of nystagmus is much more common than the unilateral form. Nystagmus can be lateral, rotatory, vertical, or diagonal, depending on the direction of the oscillations of the eyeball. The condition need not be pathological. For example, rotatory nystagmus can be induced in healthy persons who are revolving in a swivel chair, optokinetic nystagmus can result from fixing the eyes on moving objects, and caloric nystagmus can result when cold or warm water is poured into the ear.

Nystagmus is pathological when it results from a morbid condition in the vestibulocochlear nerve, in the vestibular nuclei of the brainstem, or in the labyrinth of the vestibular apparatus. Nystagmus can also result from a morbid process in the cerebellum, an inflammation of the inner ear, cerebrocranial traumas, infections and toxicoses of the brain, or neoplasms in the brain. In rarer cases, nystagmus is caused by eye diseases. Miner’s nystagmus is an occupational disease in miners who work with a pick under poorly illuminated and poorly ventilated conditions. Because these workers are constantly looking up or to the side, certain eye muscles become strained.

Nystagmus is treated by eliminating the underlying cause. In cases of miner’s nystagmus, the worker is transferred to jobs above the ground.

REFERENCE

Tsimmerman, G. S. Klinicheskaia otonevrologiia. Moscow, 1952.

V. A. KARLOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Table 2 Braille students distributed according to nosological groups, principal ophthalmic diagnoses, and year of birth (6-year periods) Diagnoses N 60-65 66-71 72-77 78-83 Sequelae to brain disorders Anomaly of the brain 2 1 (unspecified) Brain tumor 8 1 2 Sequelae to brain disorders (unspecified) 13 2 1 4 1 Congenital ocular anomalies Albinism (unspecified) 1 1 Coloboma of uvea 3 Congenital anomaly 2 1 Congenital anophthalmos 9 3 1 1 Congenital cataract (a) 16 5 5 3 Congenital glaucoma 12 3 3 1 1 Congenital maculapathy 1 Congenital nystagmus 1 1 Cong.
Congenital nystagmus is usually benign but acquired nystagmus is a sinister symptom that warrants investigation at the HES.

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