congestive heart failure


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congestive heart failure,

inability of the heart to expel sufficient blood to keep pace with the metabolic demands of the body. In the healthy individual the heart can tolerate large increases of workload for a considerable length of time. Cardiac failure results from conditions, e.g., coronary artery diseasecoronary artery disease,
condition that results when the coronary arteries are narrowed or occluded, most commonly by atherosclerotic deposits of fibrous and fatty tissue. Coronary artery disease is the most common underlying cause of cardiovascular disability and death.
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, hypertensive heart disease (see hypertensionhypertension
or high blood pressure,
elevated blood pressure resulting from an increase in the amount of blood pumped by the heart or from increased resistance to the flow of blood through the small arterial blood vessels (arterioles).
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), valvular insufficiency, and rheumatic heart disease, that interfere with the nutrition and oxygenation of the heart muscle itself. Congestive heart failure develops in 50% to 60% of patients with such disorders, and it can be either acute or chronic. If the heart has time to compensate, the heart muscle may become hypertrophic (enlarged); this is caused by structural changes that impede blood flow and impair the ability of the heart to relax. Eventually the great demand for oxygen by the heart muscle cells cannot be met, and cell death results. Either the left or right ventricle alone may fail first, although combined failure is most common and almost always eventually occurs. Left ventricular failure is marked by shortness of breath (dyspnea), often accompanied by cough; pulmonary congestion and edema are evident. Failure of the right ventricle produces systemic edema, reflecting hepatic and visceral engorgement. Diagnosis is often confirmed by echocardiography. Treatment of cardiac failure usually includes dietary changes, restrictions on physical activity, rest, oxygenation, measures to improve myocardial contractility, and correction of arrhythmias. Restriction on sodium intake and the administration of diuretics (the dosages of which depend on the patient's weight) are used to remove excess sodium and water from the body. Digitalisdigitalis
, any of several chemically similar drugs used primarily to increase the force and rate of heart contractions, especially in damaged heart muscle. The effects of the drug were known as early as 1500 B.C.
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 is often prescribed to increase the speed and force of cardiac contractions, and ACE inhibitorsACE inhibitor
or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
, drug used to reduce elevated blood pressure (see hypertension), to treat congestive heart failure, and to alleviate strain on hearts damaged as a result of a heart attack (see infarction).
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 are used to decrease peripheral vascular resistance, making heart pumping easier and more effective.

congestive heart failure

[kən′jes·tiv ′härt ‚fāl·yər]
(medicine)
A state in which circulatory congestion exists as a result of heart failure.
References in periodicals archive ?
According to the prior study, the average readability of Wikipedia.org, MayoClinic.org, WebMD.com, Medicine.net, and NIH.gov on the disease-specific topic of congestive heart failure was found to be above the recommended sixth-grade reading level.
Although MVI and DCM cause the vast majority of congestive heart failure in dogs, there are many other causes.
Editor's Note: Congestive heart failure occurs when the heart fails to pump in an efficient manner.
More than 6 million people in the United States suffer from congestive heart failure (CHF) with an additional 670,000 new cases diagnosed each year.
Simply stated, congestive heart failure means that the heart cannot pump the required amount of blood for the body.
Revascor is an allogeneic cell therapy product being developed to reverse congestive heart failure by rebuilding both blood vessels and heart muscle.
This work discusses possible etiological mechanisms, diagnostic modalities, and management strategies for congestive heart failure. Some subjects examined include right ventricular failure in cardiac surgery, reversible left ventricular dysfunction, and the association between implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks and heart failure.
Patients with congestive heart failure and end-stage renal disease at baseline were excluded from the analysis.
"Patients self-assessment of their congestive heart failure. Part 2: content, reliability and validity of a new measure, the Minnesota living with heart failure questionnaire," Heart failure, Vol.10, pp.198-209.
Summary: The world's leading drug for the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, and post-myocardial infarction -- Valsartan -- remains a top treatment option for UAE heart patients, according to the country's top cardiologists.
Former actor and gay rights activist Robert Arthur, 83, of congestive heart failure, October 1, in Aberdeen, Wash.
High rates of depression are found among hospitalized patients with congestive heart failure. Are depressive symptoms during hospitalization a temporary adjustment reaction that can be ignored, or do they indicate a persistent depression that needs treatment?