conjunctivitis


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
Related to conjunctivitis: allergic conjunctivitis

conjunctivitis

(kənjəngtəvī`təs), inflammation or infection of the mucosal membrane that covers the eyeball and lines the eyelid, usually acute, caused by a virus or, less often, by a bacillus, an allergic reaction, or an irritating chemical. Commonly called pinkeye, mild conjunctivitis usually causes redness, discharge, and itching of the membrane. Conjunctivitis may also be associated with upper respiratory infection or with childhood diseases such as measles. Bacterial forms of the disorder, whether chronic or acute, are treated successfully with antibiotics, and although viral conjunctivitis will clear up on its own in 8 to 10 days, antibiotic eyedrops or ointments are often prescribed for most cases of the disease in order to prevent bacterial conjunctivitis. Trachomatrachoma
, infection of the mucous membrane of the eyelids caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Trachoma affects at least 86 million people worldwide. An estimated 1.
..... Click the link for more information.
, though rare in the United States, is a severe conjunctivitis that can cause loss of vision. Another severe form of conjunctivitis is caused by the gonococcus bacterium and is usually associated with a genital infection. Conjunctivitis in newborn infants, called ophthalmia neonatorum, was a problem at one time; however, routine instillation of silver nitrate solution into the eyes of newborn infants has materially reduced the incidence of blindness.

Conjunctivitis

 

inflammation of the conjunctiva.

Conjunctivitis is the most common eye disease. It may be exogenous or endogenous in origin; the former is more frequent. Exogenous conjunctivitis is caused by various microbes, including streptococci, staphylococci, the diphtheria bacillus, and gonococci. The Koch-Weeks bacillus and the Morax-Axenfeld diplococcus are specific for conjunctivitis. The cause is also often viral infection. In addition, the condition may result from mechanical irritation, such as by foreign bodies, from exposure to heat, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, or chemical agents.

Endogenous conjunctivitides arise in the presence of systemic infections (measles, scarlet fever), inflammations of the nasopharynx or teeth, or diseases of the gastrointestinal tract or liver. There are also allergic conjunctivitides.

Conjunctivitis is classified as either acute or chronic, according to its course. Acute conjunctivitis is manifested by a purulent discharge from the eye and redness (hyperemia) of the palpebral and ocular conjunctivae and sometimes by punctate hemorrhages under the conjunctiva and conjunctival edema. In some cases the surface of the conjunctiva becomes rough, a result of the appearance in it of ridged formations, or follicles, and papillae. Chronic conjunctivitis shows moderate changes in the conjunctiva. Most notable are subjective sensations, such as a feeling of dust in the eye and photophobia. Conjunctivitis is treated with sulfanilamides and antibiotic eyedrops. Hormonal (corticosteroid) preparations are used in some cases. In cases with purulent discharge the eyes are irrigated with boric acid solution or with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.

L. A. KATSNEL’SON

Conjunctivitis in animals is most often observed as a symptom of various other diseases. The causes of independent conjunctivitides in animals may be mechanical, chemical, or radiant irritants or the causative agents of certain infectious diseases. The principal manifestation is conjunctival hyperemia. The condition is treated by eliminating the primary causes and using antiseptic solutions.

REFERENCES

Arkhangel’skii, V. N. Glaznye bolezni, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1969. Pages 124–33.
Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po glaznym bolezniam, vol. 2, book 1. Moscow, 1960. Pages 46–186.

conjunctivitis

[kən‚jəŋk·tə′vīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the conjunctiva.

conjunctivitis

inflammation of the conjunctiva
References in periodicals archive ?
At the end of January 2015, by using spatiotemporal analysis of data from the OSCOUR network, we detected a cluster of conjunctivitis cases in the western part of the island that occurred during January 26-February 1 (week 5 of 2015).
They referred to "emerging concern" about the incidence of conjunctivitis with "near-future" biologic treatments for AD.
Conclusions: It is very difficult in viral conjunctivitis to make clinical differentiation caused by different agents because of common clinical signs and symptoms.
In the present study, the prevalence of vernal conjunctivitis was found to be 5.
The report segments the conjunctivitis market by disease type and by region.
Familial transmission was found very important to adenoviral conjunctivitis infection.
Merck's house dust mite SLIT-tablet is an investigational sublingual immunotherapy dissolvable tablet designed to help treat allergic rhinitis with or without conjunctivitis caused by house dust mite-specific allergens.
The report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global conjunctivitis medication market for 2015-2019.
Approximately 50% of infectious conjunctivitis cases have a viral etiology, and 65 to 90% of these are caused by adenovirus.
Jamil Ahmed informed that the conjunctivitis is an inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva; a thin, transparent layer covering the surface of the inner eyelid and the front of the eye and it affects people of all ages.
Conjunctivitis summary benchmarks for preferred practice pattern guidelines.
For children who present to your office, consider "anything that can go wrong to make the eye red," he continued, including nasolacrimal duct obstruction, adnexal disease, foreign body/trauma, uveitis, neoplasm, structural change, or conjunctivitis.