conjunctivitis


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Related to conjunctivitis: allergic conjunctivitis

conjunctivitis

(kənjəngtəvī`təs), inflammation or infection of the mucosal membrane that covers the eyeball and lines the eyelid, usually acute, caused by a virus or, less often, by a bacillus, an allergic reaction, or an irritating chemical. Commonly called pinkeye, mild conjunctivitis usually causes redness, discharge, and itching of the membrane. Conjunctivitis may also be associated with upper respiratory infection or with childhood diseases such as measles. Bacterial forms of the disorder, whether chronic or acute, are treated successfully with antibiotics, and although viral conjunctivitis will clear up on its own in 8 to 10 days, antibiotic eyedrops or ointments are often prescribed for most cases of the disease in order to prevent bacterial conjunctivitis. Trachomatrachoma
, infection of the mucous membrane of the eyelids caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Trachoma affects at least 86 million people worldwide. An estimated 1.
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, though rare in the United States, is a severe conjunctivitis that can cause loss of vision. Another severe form of conjunctivitis is caused by the gonococcus bacterium and is usually associated with a genital infection. Conjunctivitis in newborn infants, called ophthalmia neonatorum, was a problem at one time; however, routine instillation of silver nitrate solution into the eyes of newborn infants has materially reduced the incidence of blindness.

Conjunctivitis

 

inflammation of the conjunctiva.

Conjunctivitis is the most common eye disease. It may be exogenous or endogenous in origin; the former is more frequent. Exogenous conjunctivitis is caused by various microbes, including streptococci, staphylococci, the diphtheria bacillus, and gonococci. The Koch-Weeks bacillus and the Morax-Axenfeld diplococcus are specific for conjunctivitis. The cause is also often viral infection. In addition, the condition may result from mechanical irritation, such as by foreign bodies, from exposure to heat, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, or chemical agents.

Endogenous conjunctivitides arise in the presence of systemic infections (measles, scarlet fever), inflammations of the nasopharynx or teeth, or diseases of the gastrointestinal tract or liver. There are also allergic conjunctivitides.

Conjunctivitis is classified as either acute or chronic, according to its course. Acute conjunctivitis is manifested by a purulent discharge from the eye and redness (hyperemia) of the palpebral and ocular conjunctivae and sometimes by punctate hemorrhages under the conjunctiva and conjunctival edema. In some cases the surface of the conjunctiva becomes rough, a result of the appearance in it of ridged formations, or follicles, and papillae. Chronic conjunctivitis shows moderate changes in the conjunctiva. Most notable are subjective sensations, such as a feeling of dust in the eye and photophobia. Conjunctivitis is treated with sulfanilamides and antibiotic eyedrops. Hormonal (corticosteroid) preparations are used in some cases. In cases with purulent discharge the eyes are irrigated with boric acid solution or with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.

L. A. KATSNEL’SON

Conjunctivitis in animals is most often observed as a symptom of various other diseases. The causes of independent conjunctivitides in animals may be mechanical, chemical, or radiant irritants or the causative agents of certain infectious diseases. The principal manifestation is conjunctival hyperemia. The condition is treated by eliminating the primary causes and using antiseptic solutions.

REFERENCES

Arkhangel’skii, V. N. Glaznye bolezni, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1969. Pages 124–33.
Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po glaznym bolezniam, vol. 2, book 1. Moscow, 1960. Pages 46–186.

conjunctivitis

[kən‚jəŋk·tə′vīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the conjunctiva.

conjunctivitis

inflammation of the conjunctiva
References in periodicals archive ?
The global Conjunctivitis market was valued at $XX million in 2018, and analysts predict the global market size will reach $XX million by the end of 2028, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2018 and 2028.
Upon review of the limited literature available on primary meningococcal conjunctivitis, we determined that, although the conjunctivitis had improved, a 5-day course of therapy with parenteral ceftriaxone was warranted.
Topical cyclosporine has been tried in clinical studies in concentrations varying from 0.05% to 2% for the management of allergic conjunctivitis. However, as only limited literature is available, this study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cyclosporine 0.1% eye drops as maintenance therapy in patients of allergic conjunctivitis.
He said that certain forms of conjunctivitis can develop into a serious condition that may harm the vision and it is important to have conjunctivitis diagnosed and treated quickly.
A number of different conditions will cause conjunctivitis.
Conjunctivitis 'red eye' is a clinical problem (Mahmood and Narang, 2008) caused by infectious pathogens.
Parents are asked to keep their child or children at home if they have signs and symptoms of the conjunctivitis until the illness has been resolved.
The researchers, led by Jacob Thyssen, MD, PhD, of the department of dermatology and allergy, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark, found that 12% of patients with mild AD and 19% of those with severe AD were prescribed at least one anti-inflammatory ocular medication commonly used to treat conjunctivitis or keratitis, compared with only 4.5% of those without AD (J Am Acad Dermatol.
Methods: The conjunctiva and pharyngeal samples of the patients with conjunctivitis were taken by Virocult transport media and kept at -80 [degrees]C up to study day.
The signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis include conjunctival congestion (redness), chemosis, lid edema, ocular itching, discomfort, foreign body sensation, stinging, photophobia, and watering of eyes.
A 3-day-old newborn delivered by vagina was admitted at TGH with a one-day history of conjunctivitis and poor feeding.