usually is in the range of 10 % to 40 % in most rocks.
Ellis and Mahon, 1977; Nicholson, 1993): (1) Meteoric water--surface water, that has travelled to depths of several kilometers through permeable horizons and fractures; (2) Connate or formation water ('Fossil' waters)--water buried with host sediments which has been out of contact with the atmosphere for long geological periods; (3) Juvenile water ('new')--water derived from primary rock magma, not previously part of the hydrosphere; (4) Metamorphic water--specially modified connate water
derived from hydrous minerals during their recrystallization to less hydrous minerals during metamorphism; (5) Magmatic water--Water derived from magma that may not necessarily be juvenile water, because magma may incorporate deep circulating meteoric water or water from sediments.
where [P.sub.cave], [K.sub.ave], and [[phi].sub.ave] are average capillary pressure, permeability, and porosity of plugs under the same water saturation; [sigma] is interfacial tension; [theta] is wetting angle; [S.sub.wn] is normalized water saturation; [S.sub.w] is water saturation; [S.sub.wc] is connate water
saturation; [S.sub.or] is irreducible oil saturation.
Schols, "Drainage capillary-pressure functions and the influence of connate water
," Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal, vol.
It is concluded that connate water
and secondary trapped water  will absorb all radio electromagnetic radiation.
The greater part of the sediment is therefore flushed and groundwater is rarely stagnant except in those places where saline, presumably connate water
entrapped in aquicludes, persist in depth.
Where S is the area of the gel distribution region, [m.sup.2]; l is the interwell distance, m; R is the treatment distance, m; [theta] is the water-swept angle, in radian; r is the radius of the virtual circle, m; [f.sub.w] is he water-cut of the producer, percentage; M is the water-oil mobility ratio, dimensionless; [K.sub.rw] ([S.sub.or]) is the relative permeability to water at the residual oil saturation, fraction; [K.sub.ro] ([S.sub.wc]) is the relative permeability to oil at the connate water
saturation, fraction; [[mu].sub.w] is water viscosity, mPa-s; [[mu].sub.o] is oil viscosity, mPa*s.
After characterizing the model, the oil flooding is done using a very precise syringe pump and the connate water
is measured (Figure 1).
The ore contained 8.8 wt% bitumen, 8.7% connate water
, and 82.5% solids.
Higher concentrations of chloride are attributed to zones of fault-related discharge, and typically increase basinward where marine sediments with saline connate water
Depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs that are filled with connate water
(fully water-saturated reservoirs) offer limited storage capacity.
The special issues related to oil sand processing arising from the combined trace minerals, dissolved gases, connate water
, unrelated organic matter attached to the mineral matter are treated thoroughly.