Connotation

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Connotation

 

an additional, attendant meaning of a linguistic unit.

Connotation includes semantic or stylistic elements which are connected in a certain way with the basic meaning and are superimposed upon it. Connotation is used to express emotional and evaluative nuances. For example, the word metel’ “snowstorm,” which denotes a strong wind with snow, can be used connotatively in such combinations as pukh kruzhilsia metel’iu, “the down swirled around like a snowstorm,” and metel’ ognennykh iskr vzvilas’ v nebo, “a shower (literally, snowstorm) of fiery sparks soared skyward.” The idea of connotation includes an element of the word’s grammatical meaning that predicts the occurrence of another word in the text (for example, a preposition predicts a noun in a certain case). The notion of connotation in this sense was introduced into linguistics by K. Bühler.