conscience


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conscience,

sense of moral awareness or of right and wrong. The concept has been variously explained by moralists and philosophers. In the history of ethicsethics,
in philosophy, the study and evaluation of human conduct in the light of moral principles. Moral principles may be viewed either as the standard of conduct that individuals have constructed for themselves or as the body of obligations and duties that a particular society
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, the conscience has been looked upon as the will of a divine power expressing itself in man's judgments, an innate sense of right and wrong resulting from man's unity with the universe, an inherited intuitive sense evolved in the long history of the human race, and a set of values derived from the experience of the individual. Psychologists also differ in their analyses of the nature of conscience. It is variously believed to be an expression of values differing from other expressions of value only in the subject matter involved, a feeling of guilt for known or unknown actions done or not done, the manifestation of a special set of values introjected from the example and instruction of parents and teachers, and the value structure that essentially defines the personality of the individual. As a practical matter, the consciences of different people within a society or from different societies may vary widely.

conscience

a persons sense of right and wrong which constrains behaviour and causes feelings of guilt if its demands are not met. These moral strictures are learnt through SOCIALIZATION and therefore vary from person to person and culture to culture. The most important influence is that of the parents, who set standards for their child's behaviour both by example and by establishing rules, and who enforce the required behaviour by a system of rewards and punishments (see CONDITIONING). Parental and societal standards thus become internalized as the conscience.

FREUD's theory is particularly specific about the formation of the conscience, which he labels the SUPEREGO. This develops through IDENTIFICATION with the same sex parent and is essentially the child's idealization of the parent's moral values.

This emphasis on the parental and societal role may be considered limited by those who regard moral judgements as absolute. This view would suggest an innate moral sense and is particularly expressed in religion and mysticism. Compare COLLECTIVE CONSCIENCE.

Conscience

 

an ethical category that refers to the ability to exercise moral self-control, to formulate moral obligations independently and to demand of oneself their fulfillment, and to evaluate one’s actions.

A manifestation of the moral consciousness of the individual, conscience is revealed in rational awareness of the moral meaning of one’s actions and in emotions, such as “the gnawings of conscience.” Idealist ethics views conscience as the voice of the “inner self,” a manifestation of the “moral sense” inherent in everyone. Marxist-Leninist ethics demonstrates the social and historical character of conscience.

conscience

[′kän·chəns]
(psychology)
The moral, self-critical part of oneself wherein have developed, and reside, standards of behavior and performance and value judgments.

Conscience

Aidos
ancient Greek personification of conscience. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 14]
Clamence
haunted by guilt because he failed to respond when aware that a girl had jumped or fallen into the Seine. [Fr. Lit.: Camus The Fall]
Cricket, Jiminy
dapper mite guides the callow Pinocchio. [Am. Cinema: Pinocchio in Disney Films, 32–37]
Elder Statesman, The
Lord Claverton ponders the shame of his past, personified by ghosts of his victims. [Br. Drama: T. S. Eliot The Elder Statesman in Magill IV, 262]
Godunov, Boris
Tsar suffers pangs of conscience for having murdered the Tsarevitch in order to seize the throne. [Russ. Drama and Opera: Boris Godunov]
Karamazov, Ivan
guilt for wishing his father’s death culminates in hallucinatory conversations with the Devil. [Russ. Lit.: Dostoevsky The Brothers Karamazov]
Solness, Halyard
plagued by awareness of his past ruthlessness and the guilt of defying God’s will. [Nor. Drama: Ibsen The Master Builder in Magill II, 643]
Valdes and Cornelius
Good Angel and Evil Angel; symbolize Faustus’s inner conflict. [Br. Lit.: Doctor Faustus]
Wilson, William
his Doppelganger irrupts at occasions of duplicity. [Am. Lit.: “William Wilson” in Portable Poe, 57–82]

conscience

a. the sense of right and wrong that governs a person's thoughts and actions
b. regulation of one's actions in conformity to this sense
c. a supposed universal faculty of moral insight
References in periodicals archive ?
50) Andis Robeznieks, Battle of the Conscience Clause: When Practitioners Say No, AMERICAN MEDICAL NEWS (Apr.
Additionally, HHS Office for Civil Rights (OCR) is announcing a new proposed rule to enforce 25 existing statutory conscience protections for Americans involved in HHS-funded programs, which protect people from being coerced into participating in activities that violate their consciences, such as abortion, sterilization, or assisted suicide.
Having just received a pay rise for himself and then seen his party agree an extra PS1 billion in funding for Northern Ireland to secure a deal with the DUP, surely his conscience would have guided him to back up the words of praise for public sector workers with a real acknowledgement of what they add to our society.
En ce sens, la publication de cette capsule speciale tombe a point nomme et cet article compte precisement dresser un etat des lieux de la litterature canadienne portant sur la notion de conscience historique.
Rights of conscience are extremely important to the right to life movement to protect medical professionals, religious institutions, and employers from being forced to participate in abortion," said Carol Tobias," NRLC President.
The Bad Conscience provides a challenging but rich and complex description of the phenomenon of remorse.
Conscience is the voice of God in our hearts and minds, not our own voice.
Indeed, the official publication of Catholics for Choice in which the present article appears is titled Conscience.
As the Luftwaffe pass overhead, he relives his journey from a basement in Gateshead to a tribunal in London tasked with examining and judging that most private and intimate of things: conscience.
Some citizens may conclude that they cannot in good conscience participate in a same-sex ceremony, from priests and pastors to bakers and florists," argues the Heritage Foundation's Ryan Anderson.
The only way one can restrain himself/herself is by listening to the conscience, our conscience is our inbuilt awareness of what's true and what is the 'right' thing to do.
That it will restore conscience to its rightful place in the teaching of the Church in line with Gaudium et Spes.