conscientious objector

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conscientious objector,

person who, on the grounds of conscience, resists the authority of the state to compel military service. Such resistance, emerging in time of war, may be based on membership in a pacifistic religious sect, such as the Society of FriendsFriends, Religious Society of,
religious body originating in England in the middle of the 17th cent. under George Fox. The members are commonly called Quakers, originally a term of derision.
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 (Quakers), the DukhoborsDukhobors
or Doukhobors
[Russ.,=spirit wrestlers], religious group, prominent in Russia from the 18th to the 19th cent. The name was coined by the Orthodox opponents of the Dukhobors, who had originally called themselves Christians of the Universal Brotherhood.
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, or Jehovah's WitnessesJehovah's Witnesses,
Christian group originating in the United States at the end of the 19th cent., organized by Charles Taze Russell, whose doctrine centers on the Second Coming of Christ.
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, or on personal religious or humanitarian convictions. Political opposition to the particular aim of conscription, such as that maintained by the CopperheadsCopperheads,
in the American Civil War, a reproachful term for those Northerners sympathetic to the South, mostly Democrats outspoken in their opposition to the Lincoln administration. They were especially strong in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, where Clement L.
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 during the Civil War, by radical groups during World War I and, to a more limited extent, during World War II, and by large numbers during the Vietnam War, is usually considered in a separate category. The problem of conscientious objectors, although present in different forms since the beginning of the Christian era, became acute in World Wars I and II because of the urgent demands for manpower of the warring governments. The United States and Great Britain allowed members of recognized pacifistic religious groups to substitute for combat service: (1) noncombatant military service, (2) nonmilitary activity related to the war effort, or (3) activity considered socially valuable. Pacifists without recognized claim to exemption were liable to harsher treatment, and about 5,000 conscientious objectors were imprisoned in the United States between 1940 and 1945. The postwar Selective Service Act, passed in 1948 and amended in 1951, required that conscientious objection be based on religious belief and training that included belief in a Supreme Being. In 1970 the Supreme Court removed the religious requirement and allowed objection based on a deeply held and coherent ethical system with no reference to a Supreme Being. In 1971 the Supreme Court refused to allow objection to a particular war, a decision affecting thousands of objectors to the Vietnam War. Some 50,000–100,000 men are estimated to have left the United States to avoid being drafted to serve in that war.

Bibliography

See G. C. Field, Pacifism and Conscientious Objection (1945); M. Q. Sibley and P. E. Jacob, Conscription of Conscience (1952, repr. 1965); L. Schlissel, ed., Conscience in America (1968); G. C. Zahn, War, Conscience, and Dissent (1967); M. Ferber and S. Lynd, The Resistance (1971).

References in periodicals archive ?
The conscientious objector had refused to serve in the Turkish army as a reservist in Cyprus from 2014-2017.
The appeal was accepted by the court on Friday, which ruled that in view of the draft law recognising conscientious objection that will be discussed and voted on in the north until January 31, Karapasiaoglou's mitigation circumstances should be re-evaluated and his sentence reduced from 20 days to three.
"These are people whose stories have historically been neglected || Conscientious Norman Gaudie and I think, on the centenary of the armistice, it's worth us remembering them as well."
"This agreement is for conscientious citizens about the future of their children.
South Korea will for the first time allow conscientious objectors to do some form of community service instead of the two years of military service that all men have to do.
On the occasion, the report of the Health Commission of the Chamber that, among other points, prohibits the public health system from entering into agreements to provide services with natural or legal persons invoking conscientious objection about the application of the Law of Abortion in Three Causes.
One of their number, Walter Leslie Roberts - a young architect brought up in Hawarden in Flintshire and living near Stockport, Lancashire - became the first conscientious objector (CO) to die as a result of his treatment in captivity by the prison authorities.
One of their number, Walter Leslie Roberts - a young architect brought up at Hawarden in Flintshire and living near Stockport, Lancashire - became the first conscientious objector to die as a result of his treatment in captivity by the prison authorities.
The Constitutional Court is expected to rule by August on the legality of conscientious objection to military service.
Tax holidays are provided for a period of up to 24 months to conscientious taxpayers who face temporary financial difficulties.