(redirected from conscripts)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Idioms.
Related to conscripts: compulsorily


compulsory enrollment of personnel for service in the armed forces. Obligatory service in the armed forces has existed since ancient times in many cultures, including the samuraisamurai
, knights of feudal Japan, retainers of the daimyo. This aristocratic warrior class arose during the 12th-century wars between the Taira and Minamoto clans and was consolidated in the Tokugawa period.
..... Click the link for more information.
 in Japan, warriors in the Aztec Empire, citizen militiamen in ancient Greece and Rome, and aristocrats and their peasants or yeomen during the Middle Ages in Europe. In England, compulsory military service was employed on the local level in the Anglo-Saxon fyrd as early as the 9th cent. In the 16th cent. MachiavelliMachiavelli, Niccolò
, 1469–1527, Italian author and statesman, one of the outstanding figures of the Renaissance, b. Florence. Life

A member of the impoverished branch of a distinguished family, he entered (1498) the political service of the
..... Click the link for more information.
 argued that every able-bodied man in a nation was a potential soldier and could by means of conscription be required to serve in the armed forces. Conscription in the modern sense of the term dates from 1793, when the Convention of the French Republic raised an army of 300,000 men from the provinces. A few years later, conscription enabled Napoleon INapoleon I
, 1769–1821, emperor of the French, b. Ajaccio, Corsica, known as "the Little Corporal." Early Life

The son of Carlo and Letizia Bonaparte (or Buonaparte; see under Bonaparte, family), young Napoleon was sent (1779) to French military schools at
..... Click the link for more information.
 to build his tremendous fighting forces. Following Napoleon's example, Muhammad Ali of Egypt raised a powerful army in the 1830s. Compulsory peacetime recruitment was introduced (1811–12) by Prussia. Mass armies, raised at little cost by conscription, completely changed the scale of battle by the time of the Napoleonic Wars. The institution of conscription, which was increasingly justified by statesmen on grounds of national defense and economic stimulation, spread to other European nations and Japan in the 19th cent. At the outbreak of World War I, Great Britain adopted conscription and used it again in World War II; it was abolished in 1962. Though little used in the United States prior to the Civil War, conscription was used by both sides in that war and in most large-scale U.S. wars since, often with great controversy. Most of the important military powers of the 20th cent. have used conscription to raise their armed forces. China, because of its large population, has a policy of selective conscription. Impressmentimpressment,
forcible enrollment of recruits for military duty. Before the establishment of conscription, many countries supplemented their militia and mercenary troops by impressment.
..... Click the link for more information.
 is the forcible mustering of recruits. It lacks the scope and bureaucratic form of conscription. Many countries throughout the world, such as Israel, have mandatory military service; a few allow for alternate civilian service or release for conscientious objectorsconscientious objector,
person who, on the grounds of conscience, resists the authority of the state to compel military service. Such resistance, emerging in time of war, may be based on membership in a pacifistic religious sect, such as the Society of Friends (Quakers), the
..... Click the link for more information.
. See also selective serviceselective service,
in U.S. history, term for conscription.

Conscription was established (1863) in the U.S. Civil War, but proved unpopular (see draft riots). The law authorized release from service to anyone who furnished a substitute and, at first, to those who paid $300.
..... Click the link for more information.





a method of troop recruitment based on universal military service. This system was in force in France in the late 18th century and the 19th.

During the French Revolution the Convention decreed in August 1793 the compulsory mass levy into the army of all Frenchmen between the ages of 18 and 40, the first places to be filled by bachelors and childless men between the ages of 18 and 25. In 1798 a universal six-year military obligation became the law in France under the name of conscription. Originally military service was considered an inescapable personal responsibility, and no one could take anyone else’s place. But by 1800 provisions were made to make the system less strict so that replacements could serve for the conscripts and exemptions could be bought. Military service thus became obligatory but not personal. Conscription was in effect in France until 1872 and in Russia (only for residents of Poland) from 1815 to 1874. In the second half of the 19th century conscription was replaced by universal military service.


References in periodicals archive ?
During the service, the number of underweight conscripts and of those who had signs of overweight decreased and the number of conscripts with normal body weight increased.
She writes unusually well: I was struck by her powerful introductory section, which described her own dealings with conscripts in the former Yugoslavia, `hard soldiers and hardened men, yet not of a military demeanour' so often displaying `the patience of extended boredom'.
Legitimate questions need to be raised about the limited utility of nine-month conscripts, even for territorial defense.
People who graduate from colleges are offered the chance to remain in service after the obligatory period (12-36 months), and they are positioned in special ranks among the other conscripts.
Without authority from the government to increase the numbers of conscripts (and the size of the army), the only way you can take everyone is to reduce military service to six months and every three months take in 200,000.
The passengers on that train, roughly estimated at more than l300, were basically conscripts transferring from Assiut Governorate to training units of the Central Security Forces (CSF) in Cairo.
years of imprisonment on charges of murdering the two conscripts.
Some 48,000 conscripts worked the mines between 1943 and 1948 under the scheme named after minister of labour Ernest Bevin.
This riveting personal account from the training on the Eastern Front, during which conscripts were forced to watch the execution of deserters, to his ultimate wounding and capture by the Soviets, makes one wonder how he managed to keep his sanity and then years later write about his horrifying experiences.
There is no reason why conscripts, with professional supervision, can't work as border guards, customs agents, anthrax inoculators, or disaster-relief specialists.
The suit said the conscripts were sent to Thailand and Indonesia to serve in the Japanese army, which they joined while Korea was under Japanese colonial rule.
The practice of submitting fake medical tests and X-rays showing medical problems is widespread among recruits who want to get out of military service where conditions are miserable and older soldiers brutally haze younger conscripts.