While the main idea was to make all three ethnic groups in BiH feel equally represented in a state that would be built on consociational
foundations, important aspects have been overlooked and given scant attention.
(31) The critical elements of the consociational
The effects of the international drug trade, an external shock, further compounded the internal contradictions of the Colombia's consociational
regime, creating what I call a normative cleavage between the normative claim of a democracy and the political reality of a state besieged by violence.
Because of society's divisions, ethnic parties were forced to form a consociational
Several scholars and political figures have made specific calls for PR, arguing that it will increase representation of smaller, ethnic political parties while reducing the seat inflation of larger parties--the standard consociational
logic (Marston 2013; Chit 2014; Smith n.d.).
From the 1950s it was always the lively, open, liberal and freewheeling place where other Arabs came for exile and safety, or where Arab regimes fought their ideological battles through the Lebanese press or militias that they backed or funded to a large extent.While most Arab countries were ruled by top-heavy autocracies dominated by individuals or families, often representing some minority sect or ethnic group, Lebanon was different: It was governed by a consociational
system of government that sought consensus among 18 different confessional groups represented in the parliament and society.
." (2.c) the "semi- presidentialism" ("dualism" + "consociationalism," with majoritarian traces) (22).
The response lies largely in Belgium's consociational
model that has been put in place at the central level to deal with the linguistic cleavage.
Prior research also finds that consociational
forms of democracy are best suited for managing conflict and guaranteeing representation in diverse societies (Lijphart, 1977; Lijphart, 1979; Adeney, 2007).
In Sri Lanka, Tamil political leaders were a part of the unitary government in the years immediately following independence; it was a consensual and consociational
form of government.
The federal minister stated that the outgoing democratic government has also set a unique tradition of consociational
democracy which has worked in developing consensus on major issues of Pakistan.
A competitive political system where power is divided, as in a majoritarian system, rather than shared, as in a consociational
system, may be inappropriate then in the wake of recent ethnic violence.