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In addition to causing difficulties in consonant identification, aging may cause neuroanatomical [36] and cognitive changes that further disrupt top-down sentence comprehension [37-38].
Students need to learn the sounds typically associated with single consonants at the beginning of words.
The combination is slightly different for /ti/, and P1 and N1 seem to be stemming only from the consonant part- P2 from consonant P2 and vowel N1, and N2 from consonant N2 and vowel P2-N2.
Some attested words for both of the consonant sequences are /honz/ (an animal), /ponz/ (nose), /dnz/ (dust) for /tenz/ and /gZn/ (hunger), pZm (silk), rZn (light) for /taZn/ respectively.
Descriptive Measures of Correct Consonant Percentages in Evaluations 1 and 2 Average Median Standard Q1 Q3 N deviation PCC (N) Av1 56,5% 57,1% 29,0% 35,8% 78,2% 19 Av2 74,7% 76,6% 17,3% 62,8% 90,0% 19 PCC(I) Av1 62,8% 58,1% 20,5% 46,4% 76,3% 19 Av2 74,4% 75,5% 15,3% 61,3% 87,6% 19 PCC(FE) Av1 65,3% 63,2% 21,4% 50,0% 86,3% 19 Av2 75,8% 70,6% 15,9% 64,4% 89,8% 19 Average Av1 61,5% 58,0% 22,4% 42,9% 81,8% 19 Av2 74,9% 74,7% 15,4% 63,0% 88,9% 19 IC P-value PCC (N) Av1 13,0% <0,001 * Av2 7,8% PCC(I) Av1 9,2% <0,001 * Av2 6,9% PCC(FE) Av1 9,6% 0,001 * Av2 7,2% Average Av1 10,1% <0,001 * Av2 6,9% Legend: (N) Appointment; (I) Imitation; (FE) Speaks Spontaneous (Av1) Assessment 1 and (Av2) Assessment 2.
The results showed that proposed method outperformed the existing systems and selected the best possible features for each Arabic Consonant.
For transcription, we adopt the symbols of the IPA; and [-CC-] for the geminate consonants in accordance with Crystal (2003: 196) who proposes the use of [:] for length or long consonant as in [p:] and [-CC-] as in [-pp-] for double consonants or geminates.
For this, we developed the linguistic blocks, having standard root base and a set of flexions with different complexities and conditions of consonant combinations.
The data below shows the existence of the consonant sounds and Table 6 illustrates the comparison of the sonant plosive consonants between the MP and the ISP.
To conduct VOT measurement in maxillectomy patients, we established measurement criteria for each consonant to allow for the possibility of observing spectra not typically seen in normal individuals.
The advantages of Method 1 are that it provides intuitive consonant inputs and easy vowel formations by combining " and "1".