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1. an association of financiers, companies, etc., esp one formed for a particular purpose
2. Law the right of husband or wife to the company, assistance, and affection of the other



in biogeocenology, an association of populations of organisms whose vital activity revolves around the central species of a phytocoenosis, an autotrophic plant.

An edificator, the main species that determines the characteristics of the phytocoenosis, usually acts as the central species of the consortium. Other species, including heterotrophic organisms (parasites, saprophytes), are sometimes associated with the central species in a one-sided manner—through consumption or in providing shade. This nucleus of a consortium is the source of existence for the second, third, and subsequent circles that are made up of organisms that destroy the organic matter created by the central and other autotrophic species that use the energy they contain. The term “consortium” has been applied in the 1970’s to the symbiosis of certain plants (for example, the alga and fungus that make up a lichen).



a temporary agreement between several capitalist banks and/or industrial companies to extract monopolistic profits through the joint investment of a loan or the realization of a common large-scale industrial project.

One of the forms of fusing of bank and industrial capital, the consortium has developed particularly since World War II. The participants of the consortium can include both private and government organizations. In the 1960’s consortiums of a new type, with entire countries as members, came into existence. Under the conditions of the scientific and technological revolution, corsortiums have arisen in new sectors and at the junctions of different sectors. In such cases, besides the fusion of capital, joint scientific research is also envisaged. When a consortium is founded, the companies participating in it fully preserve their independence, but in the particular field of activity of the consortium they are subordinated to a jointly elected management. A characteristic feature of a consortium is the inequality of the relationship among the participants.


References in periodicals archive ?
In other countries, the approach to consortia would be much more centralized on a national basis.
Indeed, the success of these consortia to date suggests that publishers are open to licenses and pricing that are inclusive.
The following consortia have also selected WebCT to help power their e-learning programs:
Thousands of colleges and universities around the world - from community colleges to large university consortia - are using WebCT to expand the boundaries of teaching and learning.
will discuss strategic marketing methods to increase the awareness of standards consortia and build a global member base.
Kavi Corporation, an application service provider for technology consortia and professional associations;
The principal value of this module is as a management tool to help consortia administrators make the best possible decisions about which journal subscriptions they need to have in their groups' collections and which ones they can afford to either renegotiate or cancel in the event of budget constraints," said Cairns.
This information is crucial in order for consortia administrators to make informed decisions that will boost the strength of their serials collections and have a positive impact on future planning.
As in virtually any type of consortia, purchasing directors and other administrators at member IHEs decide what they want and the consortia does it.
These consortia especially benefit small private schools that don't have the same clout that large public schools may have, adds Bishop.
Library consortia have been formed to deal collectively with the problems of purchasing online products, to benefit from the best possible volume pricing, and to secure the best terms of agreement from online publishers.
Though start-up costs and the time it takes to get courses online are factors, the primary challenge lies in the key contradiction at the very heart of the virtual university idea, These consortia are based are the principle of convenience; the idea that students should be able to find, in one place, all of the courses they need without being restricted to the courses of any single institution.