Consortium

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consortium

1. an association of financiers, companies, etc., esp one formed for a particular purpose
2. Law the right of husband or wife to the company, assistance, and affection of the other
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Consortium

 

in biogeocenology, an association of populations of organisms whose vital activity revolves around the central species of a phytocoenosis, an autotrophic plant.

An edificator, the main species that determines the characteristics of the phytocoenosis, usually acts as the central species of the consortium. Other species, including heterotrophic organisms (parasites, saprophytes), are sometimes associated with the central species in a one-sided manner—through consumption or in providing shade. This nucleus of a consortium is the source of existence for the second, third, and subsequent circles that are made up of organisms that destroy the organic matter created by the central and other autotrophic species that use the energy they contain. The term “consortium” has been applied in the 1970’s to the symbiosis of certain plants (for example, the alga and fungus that make up a lichen).


Consortium

 

a temporary agreement between several capitalist banks and/or industrial companies to extract monopolistic profits through the joint investment of a loan or the realization of a common large-scale industrial project.

One of the forms of fusing of bank and industrial capital, the consortium has developed particularly since World War II. The participants of the consortium can include both private and government organizations. In the 1960’s consortiums of a new type, with entire countries as members, came into existence. Under the conditions of the scientific and technological revolution, corsortiums have arisen in new sectors and at the junctions of different sectors. In such cases, besides the fusion of capital, joint scientific research is also envisaged. When a consortium is founded, the companies participating in it fully preserve their independence, but in the particular field of activity of the consortium they are subordinated to a jointly elected management. A characteristic feature of a consortium is the inequality of the relationship among the participants.

IU. B. KOCHEVRIN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Motions that had been due to go to that conference said the consortia, a cornerstone of Wales' education policy in recent years, have failed and should be replaced with a body devised by the profession.
Degradation by consortia of microorganisms / mixed culture naturally enhances the process of biodegradation since, individual strains attack the dye molecule at different positions or they may utilize the decomposed products produced by one strain which will be further decomposed by another strain (Mohana et al, 2008; Coughlin et al., 1997; Schliephake et al., 2000).
In Library Consortia, the authors each contribute chapters on the various aspects of consortium management and have also gathered 16 case studies that discuss a wide variety of library consortial projects.
It said: "We concluded that after an uncertain start, the foundations for regional school improvement services are being established and there are positive signs of progress, but remaining weaknesses are hindering the development of the whole system and the effective governance and financial management of regional consortia.
The Lee and Horton article explains research on how consortia communicate with members and also has practical advice on how to reach out to members more effectively.
With public sector procurement increasingly focussed on corporate social responsibility and a desire to give work to local businesses, consortia working offers an opportunity to social enterprises and SMEs to work together to get work they couldn't win by themselves.
Estimations claim that over 60% of all standards in the ICT sector are developed by standards consortia (TAPIA, 2010).
Department of Education (USED) requires states participating in either of the two Race to the Top assessment consortia (Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium and Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers [PARCC]), as well as those participating in either of the two Enhanced Assessment Grant (EAG) English language proficiency assessment consortia (WIDA's Assessment Services Supporting English Learners through Technology Systems [ASSETS] and CCSSO's English Language Proficiency Assessment for the 21st Century [ELPA21]), to establish a "common definition of English Learner." Specifically, each consortium "must define the term in a manner that is uniform across member states and consistent with section 9101 (25)1 of the ESEA" (US Department Of Education, 2010, p.
It addresses consortia across several different sectors including tourism, food and drink, manufacturing, energy and construction.
They will be replaced by GP consortia in charge of commissioning.
There are expected to be about 30 consortia, or groups of GPs who work together.
Hyderabad The Andhra Pradesh government has approved all eight major firms and consortia that had pre-qualified for the prestigious Hyderabad Metro Rail Project, for the financial bid.