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1. an association of financiers, companies, etc., esp one formed for a particular purpose
2. Law the right of husband or wife to the company, assistance, and affection of the other
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in biogeocenology, an association of populations of organisms whose vital activity revolves around the central species of a phytocoenosis, an autotrophic plant.

An edificator, the main species that determines the characteristics of the phytocoenosis, usually acts as the central species of the consortium. Other species, including heterotrophic organisms (parasites, saprophytes), are sometimes associated with the central species in a one-sided manner—through consumption or in providing shade. This nucleus of a consortium is the source of existence for the second, third, and subsequent circles that are made up of organisms that destroy the organic matter created by the central and other autotrophic species that use the energy they contain. The term “consortium” has been applied in the 1970’s to the symbiosis of certain plants (for example, the alga and fungus that make up a lichen).



a temporary agreement between several capitalist banks and/or industrial companies to extract monopolistic profits through the joint investment of a loan or the realization of a common large-scale industrial project.

One of the forms of fusing of bank and industrial capital, the consortium has developed particularly since World War II. The participants of the consortium can include both private and government organizations. In the 1960’s consortiums of a new type, with entire countries as members, came into existence. Under the conditions of the scientific and technological revolution, corsortiums have arisen in new sectors and at the junctions of different sectors. In such cases, besides the fusion of capital, joint scientific research is also envisaged. When a consortium is founded, the companies participating in it fully preserve their independence, but in the particular field of activity of the consortium they are subordinated to a jointly elected management. A characteristic feature of a consortium is the inequality of the relationship among the participants.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In this paper, we present our analysis of usage data to assess the value of some of these consortial arrangements in their totality and to each library.
The consortium will also take part in the SearchOhio web-based service, which uses Innovative's INN-Reach direct consortial borrowing solution and integrates statewide library content in a single portal for the communities served.
All comments in this review are based on three sources of first-hand information: the experiences of participating libraries in the Boston Library Consortium (BLC) following a consortial subscription for one hundred simultaneous users that commenced in August 2004; communications posted on the Music Library Association (MLA) electronic mail list MLA-L during the fall of 2004 and spring of 2005; and the state of the Naxos Music Library Web site at (via BLC subscription access through Brandeis University) during the same period.
They discuss the many considerations involved in selecting material and in the acquisitions process, and provide information on licensing and on consortial purchasing.
Stressing the challenges posed by an "integrated" print and electronic environment, the authors contend that both traditional criteria--i.e., use, price, duplication, etc.--and new criteria unique to the electronic format, such as vendor competition, consortial agreements, archiving, and so on, come into play.
Initiatives that require costly technology or costly technology experts are particularly good projects to handle at the consortial level.
The publisher and vendor communities, in turn, respond positively to consortial arrangements, because these information providers recognize the power that is beginning to be Melded by the librarians in these unified communities.