Further studies should be performed to isolate and to characterize these substances and to determine if this attractants would be efficient enough to compete with natural sources of odors from the host and from the conspecific
Additionally, an exclusion criterion in which any rats differing from the mean time exploring the conspecific
at training of the overall sample (irrespective of group) by more than two standard deviations was employed in order to promote uniform training exposure.
The possibility of fighting-based CTA was further explored in this study by employing a differential conditioning procedure with two taste cues: One was paired with confrontation with a conspecific
, while the other was not.
Specifically, we explored whether the production of unviable seeds congregated by bats below roosting sites could enhance secondary seed dispersal, seed survival and thus seedling recruitment away from the nearest conspecific
Dipteryx oleifera tree.
If a male conspecific
came within a half-meter or less of an occupied leaf mass, the resident flew up and directly at the intruder.
Given the small number of species studied to date, little is known about which species exhibit conspecific
fasciatus was presented with a cloacal swab from itself (a positive control) and a conspecific
male, as well as a swab with distilled water (negative control).
1996), the only factor we have been able to identify that isolates the two species is conspecific
sperm precedence (Howard and Gregory 1993; Gregory and Howard 1994).
We conducted this experiment in donor webs constructed by unrelated conspecific
females to avoid cues the home environment might have on spiderling cannibalism.
citri instar and foraging scenario (parasitoids alone, with conspecific
competitors, and with heterospecific competitors) on oviposition preference was determined using repeated measures multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) for each parasitoid species using the general linear model (GLM) procedure (SAS Institute 2009).
stimuli accompanying touch inhibited specific tentacle contractions occurring on the far side of anemones relative to the site of contact.
For invertebrates, "necromone" cues might provide a chemical basis for learning about risks associated with conspecific