They differ in terms of how the

constant term is described.

In the models with first differences, the

constant term of regression is also subject to interpretation and it represents a time trend, i.e., the dynamics of a dependent variable due to factors other than the ones included in the model.

Recall from above that the

constant term 4 appeared by multiplying ab.

The estimated

constant term (a) is found by entering =INDEX(LINEST(C2:C13,B2:B13),2) into a different cell.

For Maxwell's electromagnetic equations ([PSI] = [[phi].sub.0]), the

constant terms are

An average inactive participant shows a fitness score of 93.74 (Table 3: "

constant term," for description, see statistics part).

where [P.sub.m] is maximal social willingness-to-pay (MSWTP), V is total daily vacant distance, Q is total daily occupied distance in the market while [P.sub.m] equals [infinity], [Q.sub.m] is minimal daily occupied distance when the taxi fare equals [P.sub.m], c is marginal opportunity cost of operating a taxicab, [[alpha].sub.1] is price elasticity of taxi demand, [[alpha].sub.2] is vacant distance elasticity of waiting time, [[beta].sub.1] is waiting time elasticity of taxi demand, [A.sub.1] is

constant term of the demand function, and [A.sub.2] is

constant term of the waiting time function.

More specifically, we regress inflation (measured by core PCE inflation), the unemployment rate, and our measure of the shadow rate on a

constant term and lagged values of inflation, the unemployment rate, and the shadow rate.

(10.) It should be noted that this is true also for the estimated coefficient of the

constant term, the accuracy of which is of considerable importance when trade flows are predicted.

Our GKD generates a unique polynomial of degree one for each member, and the group key is stored at the

constant term of the polynomial.

Fitting Compression of Double Exponential Model with

Constant Term. During the experiment, we also found that a double exponential decay model with a

constant term h, which is a correction parameter, can further improve the fitting accuracy with remarkably reduced fitting error.

In the operational cost we consider a

constant term [c.sub.0] and a variable term that grows with the size of the vehicle, [c.sub.1] [V.sup.i].