The constitutive equations
used in the modeling of EFC provided valuable insights in understanding the relation between macromolecular architecture of PEs and the extent of necking.
Those material constitutive equations
are written into the ANSYS UserMat Subroutine.
The webinar will cover the nature of piezoelectricity, the different types of piezoceramic materials, constitutive equations
, properties of piezoceramic materials at high field, and how piezoceramic materials are affected by temperature variations.
Both can be effectively applied to any material architecture and any constitutive equations
The expected outcome of the research will help the formulation of criteria to be implemented in micromechanical models, for which constitutive equations
are now relying solely on a knowledgebase derived from uniaxial testing.
They walk through the five elements needed to formulate and solve mass transfer problems: conservation laws and field equations, boundary conditions, constitutive equations
, parameters in constitutive equations
, and mathematical apparatus.
To close the system of equations, constitutive equations
heat transfer coefficients and thermal properties of the refrigerant and air are included.
Macroscopic constitutive equations
for liquid crystals induced by their mesoscopic orientation distribution.
, which are valid for both compressible and incompressible linear elastic materials, are employed.
The remaining papers are presented in sections on microstructure and heat treatment, seam welds and composite extrusion, material flow and constitutive equations
, dies and tools, and process control and optimization.
One purpose of testing at the "rubber level" is to determine parameters (constants and functions) in constitutive equations
prior to any rubber product development.
If also considering microcracks arranged according to the central symmetry, the constitutive equations
for the stress measures become